Condenser

The IIAR Condenser Magazine is a quarterly publication that contains technical articles, regulatory and code updates, industry news and information about IIAR activities and publications. It is distributed by email to all IIAR Members and IIAR Contact lists.

February 2024 CONDENSER

Condenser issues are available as a PDF downloads
for both lIAR Members and Non-members, or as
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IIAR State Of The Industry Report

The 7th edition of the State of the Industry Report has evolved to include more information from IIAR Survey questions and observations of industry leaders. Emerging information on regulatory and training developments and IIAR’s influence on the industry continues to grow.

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IIAR Remembers

Roger was born in Missoula, Montana, to Jerry and Gwen McMillan. He spent his early childhood in Spokane, Washington, and then Jerry and Gwen relocated their dry-cleaning business to Colville, Washington, where Jerry invented specialized laundry machines and started the Colmac businesses.

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What’s NEXT: LESSONS FROM CALIFORNIA’S HFC PHASEDOWN

Companies nationwide are phasing out high global-warming potential refrigerants as they comply with federal and state regulatory requirements and meet their corporate ESG and climate goals. The natural refrigerant industry is prepared to meet increasing demand.

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Mergers and Acquisitions in the Refrigeration Industry Continue

The refrigeration industry has experienced several notable mergers and acquisitions, addressing the increasing need for ultralow global warming potential refrigerant technologies and solutions.

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EPA Publishes Final Technology Transitions Rule to Phase Down HFCs

In October 2023, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Michael Regan signed the Final Rule Technology Transitions authorized under the American Innovation and Manufacturing Act designed to phase down hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) use.

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IIAR Standards Update

IIAR 1: ANSI/IIAR 1-2022 Standard for Definitions and Terminology Used in IIAR Standards is presently in effect. It will be opened up for review starting in mid-2026 for its next revision with a targeted completion with ANSI approval in 2027.

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IIAR Annual Conference to Provide Technical Knowledge, Industry Insight to Members

IIAR’s 2024 annual Natural Refrigeration Conference & Expo in Orlando, Florida, March 24-27 will provide technical knowledge, networking and industry-sponsored events for those involved in the natural refrigerant industry. There will be numerous educational opportunities throughout the conference, and attendees can earn professional development hours

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Technical Papers Provide In-Depth Thought Leadership at the IIAR Conference

During the annual IIAR Industrial Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition, industry experts will present technical papers for the IIAR Technical Program. This year’s papers will address several key categories, including heat exchangers, cold storage, ammonia charge, CO2 optimization and more. There is also a series of workshops and panels that will discuss various other topics.

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Training on Ammonia Systems Keeps Employees and Facilities Safe

Training at ammonia refrigeration facilities is critical to ensure safety and comply with regulatory requirements. Nearly everyone who works at a location with ammonia onsite needs training, even if they don’t work on the systems directly.

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IIAR Marked Notable Accomplishments Throughout 2023

IIAR staff and IIAR’s many volunteer committees were hard at work throughout 2023 and have strengthened the membership offerings, provided valuable education, and furthered the organization’s mission through advocacy, work with regulatory agencies and new partnerships.

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Technical Papers

Generally, safety standards for refrigeration systems require the placement of at least one overpressureprotection device on all carbon-dioxide (R-744) systems as well as on vessels manufactured in accordance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII Division I, or the regional equivalent1,2.

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IIAR Remembers

Chuck Hansen, a serial entrepreneur who was always at the center of things, passionately expanding connections and networks to advance the natural refrigeration industry, build his visionary products, and mentor the next generation of engineers, has passed away at the age of 100.

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ARE NATURAL REFRIGERANTS THE ONLY SURE BET?

“With the second regulation finalized, the EPA is addressing technology transition. It previously focused on production and consumption and will next consider and rule on refrigerant management.

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IIAR Interview with HARRY GRAY

Several industries are experiencing consolidation, including refrigeration, and Condenser sat down with Harry Gray, CEO of Kelvin Group, to learn more about changes that are taking place.

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Training Provides Guidance and Insights for OSHA Field Personnel

IIAR, the Industrial Refrigeration Consortium (IRC), and the Global Cold Chain Alliance are continuing their work to provide information on ammonia systems, including their principles of operation, major subsystem components, and materials of construction, to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s compliance safety and health officers. Two trainings took place in 2023 and the groups plan to offer it again in 2024.

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EPA Publishes Final Technology Transitions Rule to Phase Down HFCs

On October 5th, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Michael Regan signed the Final Rule Technology Transitions authorized under the American Innovation and Manufacturing Act designed to phase down hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) use.

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Filling Levels of Pressure Vessels by Volume for Refrigerants

In the ammonia refrigeration industry, maintaining the proper filling levels of pressure vessels is essential for safety, efficiency, and regulatory compliance. Appropriately filled vessel ensures that ammonia refrigeration systems operate optimally, reducing energy consumption and preventing safety hazards

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Guess Who’s Coming to Visit?

In the industrial ammonia refrigeration industry, we make a considerable effort to stay informed and up to date on programs that should be followed.

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IIAR Takes its Training on the Road for Trident Seafoods

Training is essential for anyone working with refrigerants, and IIAR has a long history of serving as a valuable resource for education and training for its members. The association recently took that support to the next level for Trident Seafoods in Alaska.

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New Report Offers Insights, Availability of and Use Cases for Natural Refrigerants

A new report prepared for the New York State Department of Conservation highlights opportunities for and barriers to the adoption of natural refrigerants, outlines the availability of natural refrigerants by end-use sector, provides recommendations and considerations for policymakers to address the obstacles to natural refrigerants adoption, and lists ideas for pilot projects.

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IIAR Committees Focus on Regulatory, Educational, and Member Needs

IIAR and the Natural Refrigerant Foundation held their board meetings in Dallas in October. Gary Schrift, president of IIAR, said the meetings were well attended. During the sessions, committee chairs provided updates on the critical work they are doing.

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Simple Equations for Determining Mass Flow in Refrigeration Systems

The goal of any industrial refrigeration system is to remove heat. Therefore, the total heat load is the design engineer’s first calculation, which is then used to size and select the evaporators. Unfortunately, this heat load is often also applied to the sizing of other components in the system, which can result in errors.

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THE TECHNICIAN SHORTAGE

The refrigeration industry has been facing a shortage of skilled workers for years, and the problem continues to grow, creating significant challenges, disrupting essential operations, and limiting growth. “At a high level, the workforce shortage creates a bottleneck that threatens the industry’s ability to meet regulatory timelines,” said Danielle Wright, executive director of the North American Sustainable Refrigeration Council.

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President’s Message by Gary Schrift

The months after IIAR’s annual conference are always think about the next membership year ahead. While there’s always a lot going on in these last few days of summer, it’s nice to pause for a moment and reflect on what it means to be an IIAR member and what new plans we have for the future.

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Chairman’s Message by Dave Malinauskas

As we wrap up a busy, and hopefully restful, summer, I want to take this opportunity to welcome everyone – new and renewing members alike – to IIAR. I know I’m well into my term as your IIAR Chairman, but this welcome, and re-welcome, is in order because our membership is always growing, and your staff is busier than ever supporting that growth by completing the products and projects that move us closer to our strategic vision.

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Upcoming IIAR Conference Features Significant Changes

The 2024 IIAR Natural Refrigeration Conference & Heavy Equipment Expo, March 24-27, in Orlando, will bring several significant changes from previous years, including an updated schedule and an exclusive Natural Refrigeration Foundation Fun Day.

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Assessing and Mitigating Risk

Managing risk is an important part of any business, but especially for those that work with refrigerants, which can create a safety hazard if they aren’t handled properly. However, the best ways to manage and estimate risk aren’t always clear cut.

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OSHA Announces New Emphasis Program Targeting Warehouses and Distribution Centers

On July 13th, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) announced a new national emphasis program (NEP) targeting workplace hazards in warehouses, processing facilities distribution centers, and high-risk retail establishments.

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Hydrocarbon Standard Moves Forward with Public Review

The IIAR HC (Hydrocarbon) Standard has continued to move forward and was recently released for its first public review. The 45-day public review ran from July 7 through August 21. As of early August, the standard had received 92 comments.

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Understanding

Have you ever thought about your understanding of the equipment and tools we use as well as the entire refrigeration system(s)? Many times, or maybe all of the time we assume we or someone else understands until something happens. This may be like the definition of confidence I have heard, which is “That feeling you get just before you understand the situation.”

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IIAR Board Advances Standards, Undertakes New Initiatives, and Celebrates Members

IIAR has recently had its June board meeting, and the board took action on several critical IIAR standards and initiatives, welcomed new committee chairs, and celebrated members who have devoted valuable time and expertise to the industry.

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Built to Last

All parents aspire to build a life for their children that is better than the one they lived. One way many parents seek to accomplish this worthy endeavor is by building a strong financial legacy. If you are fortunate enough to accumulate more wealth than previous generations of your family, you should work diligently to ensure that this wealth will translate to a financial legacy built to last not only for your children but for generations to come.

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IIAR Remembers

Klaas Visser, known to the natural refrigeration industry as a relentless environmental advocate who is credited by many for helping lead the renaissance of CO2, as well as a tireless innovator who introduced pivotal new refrigeration system designs, has passed away at the age of 83.

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The Design of CO2 Refrigeration System Using Ammonia System Design Principles

Over the past 20 years or so the use of CO2 refrigerant as the first stage of CO2/HFC and CO2/NH3 cascade systems has increased significantly. The use of two-stage transcritical CO2 systems, which are invariably air cooled, is an increasing trend. Frequently, two-stage gas coolers are used with water sprayed on the secondstage air-cooled gas coolers to reduce the gas cooler exit temperature to as low a value as possible.

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IIAR WELCOMES 1,700 IIAR MEMBERS IN LONG BEACH

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration 2023 Annual Natural Refrigeration Conference & Expo in Long Beach, California. The event provided four days of technical knowledge, networking, and industry-sponsored events for those involved in the natural refrigeration industry. Roughly 1,700 attendees took part in the show and IIAR set a new record with its exhibit space.

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President’s Message by Gary Schrift

Our Annual Conference in Long Beach was a great success, and now that the flurry of committee meetings, networking events, and technical discussions have ended and we’re all back at work, it’s time to set some new goals and carry the momentum of our recent meeting into the rest of the year.

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Chairman’s Message by Dave Malinauskas

Conference time has come and gone, and there’s a lot to look forward to this year. For the executive committee and your staff at headquarters, that means everyone is working hard to make sure our recent initiatives – from the AIM Act to our focus on developing IIAR member benefits to the many new projects our committees have started – will put us in the best possible position.

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Uriah Donaldson, Gabriel Gutierrez, Winners of the 2023 IIAR Award for Presentation Excellence

Uriah Donaldson, a process safety consultant and account manager for Resource Compliance, received IIAR’s 2023 Award for Presentation Excellence for his outstanding description of “The Cost of Non-Compliance: An Objective Analysis of Federal EPA’s Enforcement at Ammonia Facilities” during IIAR’s 2023 Annual Conference in Long Beach, California.

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Natural Refrigeration Foundation Annual Golf Tournament a Success

The Natural Refrigeration Foundation has raised more than $73,000 at its annual golf tournament. The foundation promotes the climate-positive, safe, reliable, and efficient use of natural refrigerants through research and scholarships to develop industry talent, academic alliances, and outreach.

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Industrial Refrigeration Faces Significant Cybersecurity Risks

The use of technology in the industrial refrigeration industry continues to increase, and automation and internet control of facilities are becoming commonplace. The benefits of automation and control are massive, but there is also a downside. The systems can be vulnerable to attack, making cybersecurity measures essential to protect against cyber threats.

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Heat Pumps Hold Potential in Household and Commercial Applications

Heat pumps can significantly reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, and the adoption of heat pumps is continuing to increase in both household and industrial applications as technology advances.

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Work Continues on IIAR Standards

The Standards Committee is continuing its work on revisions of several standards, which must be reviewed and revised a minimum of every five years by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for IIAR to remain as an accredited Standards Developing Organization (SDO). Updates for each standard were given during the IIAR Standards Committee Meeting at the IIAR 2023 Annual Conference in Long Beach.

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IIAR Remembers Members for Their Service and Contributions

IIAR’s success hinges on the involvement of its members, and the association would like to pay tribute to several members who have passed away. These members generously shared their time and expertise with IIAR and the industry, and they will be missed.

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IIAR, RETA Work to Increase Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in the Industry

Industrial refrigeration has long been a male-dominated industry with women being few and far between, whether it be at the enduser, contractor, or manufacturer level, but that is changing.

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Keeping Up by Dr. Janet Lapp

The increase in the volume of work resulting from regulatory changes is superimposed on a backset of a) unprecedented instability and b) an increasing and overwhelming number of decisions we are forced to make daily. Generative A.I. is compounding the overwhelm. The number of decisions every day has increased tenfold over the last three years (74%), 78% are bombarded with more data than ever, and 86% say the volume of data is making decisions much more complicated.

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OSHA Nears Completion of Final Rule on Injury and Illness Recordkeeping Requirements

On April 7, 2023, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) submitted its latest injury and illness recordkeeping proposal to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA). Submission to OIRA usually marks the last step in the rulemaking process before a Final Rule is published. Injury and illness recordkeeping has been the subject of regulatory attention by the last three administrations.

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Weighing the Choice between NCIAL Taxable and Tax-Free Bonds

If you're considering the purchase of an individual bond or even a bond mutual fund, one of your first concerns will be its yield. However, when comparing various yields, you need to make sure you're not comparing apples to oranges. The yield on a tax-free bond may be lower than that paid by a taxable bond, but you'll need to look at its tax-equivalent yield to compare them accurately.

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Lesson Learned: Bad Decommissioning Mistake

I am sure that many of us have seen ammonia refrigeration systems that have operated for several decades, with equipment and system components functioning well past recommended operating life. This is a credit to manufacturers, installers, service technicians, and operators. Aging equipment and piping at some point will eventually require replacement. Or the system or portion of it may be decommissioned due to a business discussion. Due to various conditions, it may become necessary to decommission a system or portions of it, which is defined in ANSI/ IIAR 8- 2020 – Decommissioning of Closed-Circuit Ammonia Refrigeration Systems as: “The permanent deactivation of a closed-circuit refrigeration system.”

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Benefit of Ammonia Heat Pump Implementation in the Industry and for District Heating

Over the last 15 years the market for high-temperature ammonia heat pumps has been growing in Europe and now it is also taking off in North America. That period in Europe has yielded many lessons as higher pressure and temperature present new challenges in refrigerant design. This paper explains where heat pump installation differs from refrigeration installation through three case studies of installations in Europe.

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President’s Message by Gary Shrift

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration is growing, both within the United States and abroad, thanks to the use of natural refrigerants, and nowhere is this more evident than at the IIAR annual conference. This year, we’ll meet in person in Long Beach, California to discuss everything from HFC phaseouts to the AIM Act, to new technologies.

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Chairman’s Message

As I wind up my year as chairman of our International Association of Industrial Refrigeration, I look back and see all the wonderful accomplishments that you – our members and committees have achieved –setting the stage for even more in the year ahead. First on my list is the newly formed IIAR AIM Act Task Force. The American Innovation and Manufacturing Act (AIM) Act is expected to increase the long-term use of natural refrigerants and bring significant new opportunities to the natural refrigerant industry.

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High Growth For Low Charge

The pace of adoption of low-charge and packaged systems continues to increase as government regulations, sustainability initiatives, safety precautions, and technology advance. “There has been a drive to reduce refrigerant charge in all refrigeration,” said John Collins, industrial sales manager for Zero Zone. “The synthetic refrigerants containing HFC compounds are being regulated. Current and proposed regulations set definite limits which are driving system design for those types of systems and driving low-charge systems and more packaged unitary equipment because they’re trying to get the charge down.”

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IIAR Annual Conference Heads to Long Beach

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration 2023 annual Natural Refrigeration Conference & Expo will take place in Long Beach, California, March 12th15th with a Foundation Golf Outing on March 11th and the first ever Foundation Pickleball/Cornhole Tournament on March 12th. The event provides four days of technical knowledge, networking, and industry-sponsored events for those involved in the natural refrigeration industry.

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Identifying Hazards Using Appropriate Assessment Techniques

The United States EPA National Enforcement and Compliance Assurance Program implemented several national compliance initiatives (NCIs) effective for FY2020-2023. One of these NCIs is titled “Reducing Risks of Accidental Releases at Industrial and Chemical Facilities”. IIAR has received notice from the EPA and several end-users that one area of their focus is to determine whether facilities using hazardous chemicals have conducted a hazard analysis.

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Technical Papers Provide In-Depth Thought Leadership at the IIAR Conference

During the annual IIAR Industrial Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition, industry experts will come together to present technical papers at the IIAR Technical Program. This year’s papers will address several key categories, including carbon dioxide, security, and safety.

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Update on IIAR Standards: 2023

IIAR is the world’s leading advocate for the safe, reliable, and efficient use of ammonia and other natural refrigerants as well as an ANSI-accredited standards developer. IIAR is currently the only organization writing design and operation standards specifically for ammonia and other natural refrigeration systems. All IIAR Standards are developed to meet essentialrequirement criteria set by ANSI. All IIAR Standards must be re-affirmed every 5 years.

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EPA Proposes HFC Phase Down Rule for Refrigeration Sector

On December 9th, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposed rule under the American Innovation and Manufacturing (AIM) Act to advance the transition to more efficient heating and cooling technologies by restricting the use of hydrofluorocarbo and refrigeration, air conditioning, and heat pump equipment beginning in 2025. EPA has listed entities potentially impacted by the rule to include companies that manufacture, import, export, package, sell or otherwise distribute products that use or are intended to use HFCs, such as refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, heat pumps, foams, and aerosols.

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The Secure Act 2.0

The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancements (SECURE) Act increases saving opportunities for Americans. SECURE Act 2.0 was recently passed and contains roughly 90 separate provisions, many of which became effective on January 1, 2023. Below is a summary of some of the more substantial changes:

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Code and Standards Road Map Overview

Alot has happened since 2019. IIAR, in its continuing mission to promote the safe and sustainable use of natural refrigerants, produced the ANSI/IIAR CO2-2021 Safety Standard for Closed-Circuit Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Systems. As the phase-down of F-gas refrigerants continues to accelerate worldwide, CO2 technology has become an increasingly popular option utilized in the industrial refrigeration sector and more recently in the commercial refrigeration sector.

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Colors of Ammonia?

If you have been around the ammonia refrigeration industry for a while you know ammonia is clear (colorless) unless it has been contaminated with impurities. However, over the last several years ammonia is more often being referred to with a color, which is not referring to the ammonia, but the process used to manufacture it.

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IIAR Task Force Keeps Members Up to Date on the AIM Act

The American Innovation and Manufacturing Act (AIM) Act is expected to increase the long-term use of natural refrigerants and bring significant new opportunities to the natural refrigerant industry. To ensure those in the industry are aware of the changes and opportunities the AIM Act will bring, IIAR has formed the AIM Act Task Force, which is being led by Miguel Garrido, executive president, Günter U.S.

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IIAR, RETA, GCCA, ASTI Form Coalition to Promote Natural Refrigerants

Safety, prevention, and emergency response readiness are top priorities within the natural refrigerant industry, and the Ammonia Safety Training Institute, IIAR, Global Cold Chain Alliance, and Refrigerating Engineers & Technicians Association have come together to form the Ammonia Safety Day Coalition.

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President’s Message by Gary Schrift

It’s that time of year again, and I’m happy to welcome all IIAR members back to our most important event – the IIAR annual conference and exhibition!

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Chairman’s Message by Eric Johnston

A new year is upon us and with it has come so many exciting changes for IIAR. As we look forward to the first in-person annual conference in years, I’m looking back on all the wonderful achievements our organization has made in 2021. Despite a global pandemic and the inability to meet in person, our members and committees have moved forward several important initiatives, our staff has grown our member services, and we’ve continued to do the essential standards development work our organization is known for.

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Bridging the Gap: IIAR’s Newest Standard to Address Hydrocarbons in Industrial Refrigeration

IIAR is nearing the completion of its first standard for hydrocarbons—such as propane and butane—in large refrigeration systems. Hydrocarbons have been used for years in the petrochemical industry and are increasingly used in some refrigeration applications.

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Membership Dues Changes Bring Additional Value to Members

For the first time since 2006, IIAR has made changes to its membership structure, bringing new value and opportunities to those in the refrigeration industry. IIAR’s new membership structure will take effect on July 1, 2022, and the changes will increase the value of IIAR membership, promote recruitment and retention of members, and create financial balance and sustainability for IIAR.

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IIAR Annual Conference Returns with In-Person and Virtual Learning Opportunities

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration 2022 annual Natural Refrigeration Conference & Expo will return to an in-person meeting this year in Savannah, Georgia, March 6-9, with a Foundation Golf Outing on March 5th. The event provides four days of technical knowledge, networking and industry-sponsored events for those involved in the natural refrigeration industry. IIAR will also record each technical session and make recordings available online about a week later for those who can’t attend in person.

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Conference Chair’s Message by Dave Malinauskas

Welcome to the 2022 IIAR Natural Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition! It’s the beginning of a new membership year for all of us at IIAR, and most importantly, it’s our first year “back” to normal in-person meetings. That means it’s time to meet new colleagues, network, and catch up with friends and business partners at our industry’s largest conference and expo event.

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Technical Papers Provide In-Depth Thought Leadership at the IIAR Conference

During the annual IIAR Industrial Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition, industry experts will come together to present technical papers at the IIAR Technical Program. This year, the session will feature a dozen papers covering a broad range of topics.

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IIAR’s Global Reach Promotes Standards, Safety and Education Worldwide

As a global organization with members across the world, IIAR gives members the opportunity to learn from those with different experiences and points of view as well as improve the overall safety of the industrial refrigeration industry.

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Regulatory Outlook for 2022 by Lowell Randel, IIAR Government Relations Director

As the Biden Administration enters its second year, agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are preparing to take significant regulatory actions that will impact the industrial refrigeration industry.

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Awareness and Attention

Being aware and paying attention to what’s around you, where you are, and what’s happening can be really important. Sometimes for whatever reason, we miss something that we may be looking right at, hearing, smelling, etc. I’m sure that we all have some lack of awareness and/or have not been paying attention at various times. Lack of awareness and attention can be caused by several factors such as exhaustion, sickness, demands on your time, stress, boredom, hunger, etc.

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Pandemic Pressure and Growing Acceptance of Natural Refrigerants in Europe

As in other regions of the world, the past months have been heavily influenced by the global pandemic. But despite or perhaps because of the pressures introduced by the pandemic, business in European industrial refrigeration has increased quite a lot, and as such, the difficulty has been and still is to maintain the human resources to continue working even with pandemic-related challenges.

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Benefit of Ammonia Heat Pump Implementation in the Industry and for District Heating by Kenneth Hoffman, Application Manager heat pumps, GEA heating and refrigeration technologies

Over the last 15 years the market for high-temperature ammonia heat pumps has been growing in Europe and now it is also taking off in North America. That period in Europe has yielded many lessons as higher pressure and temperature present new challenges in refrigerant design. This paper explains where heat pump installation differs from refrigeration installation through three case studies of installations in Europe.

Read More>>>
President’s Message by Gary Schrift

Our first in-person Annual Conference since the pandemic began was a great success, and now that the flurry of committee meetings, networking events, and technical discussions have ended and we’re all back at work, it’s time to set some new goals and carry the momentum of our recent meeting into the rest of the year.

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Chairman’s Message By Trevor Hegg

As we conclude our first in person conference in over three years, I’m excited to introduce myself as your new Board Chairman and tell you that, this year, the opportunities for our organization are huge. In this issue of the Condenser, you’ll read about one of them, the American Innovation and Manufacturing (AIM) Act.

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IIAR Forms AIM Act Task Force

The American Innovation and Manufacturing (AIM) Act regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency will restrict refrigerants’ allowable global warming potential throughout the United States and it is expected to increase the long-term use of natural refrigerants. IIAR has formed the AIM Task Force to help learn more about the AIM Act’s requirements and how the association and its members can support the act.

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IIAR Members Return to First Post-Covid Conference

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration 2022 annual Natural Refrigeration Conference & Expo held its first in person meeting since 2019 this year in Savannah, Georgia, March 6-9. The event attracted 1,272 attendees and 122 exhibitors and provided four days of technical knowledge, networking, and industry-sponsored events for those involved in the natural refrigeration industry.

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IIAR Honors Members for Outstanding Contributions

During IIAR’s annual conference and expo, IIAR honored Dave Schaefer with the Member of the Year Award and Joe Pillis and Jeff Shapiro with Honorary Lifetime Member Awards. “All three—Dave, Jeff, and Joe—are well deserving of the awards,” said Kurt Liebendorfer, vice president of Evapcold. Schaefer served as chief engineer for Bassett Mechanical before retiring earlier this year.

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IIAR Announces Regulatory Initiatives

IIAR dedicated time to updating members on the latest regulatory initiatives during its annual conference. Lowell Randel, director of government affairs for IIAR, discussed several areas of focus for the association and the natural refrigerant industry.

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IIAR’s Foundation Focuses on its Three Pillars, Prepares to Change Name

The foundation focuses on three pillars—research, educational training, and educational scholarships—and has had a successful year supporting each of these areas. During IIAR’s annual meeting and expo, Dave Schaefer, chairman of the Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation, provided an update on the foundation’s accomplishments.

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Foundation Scholarships Help Students Gain New Insights into the Natural Refrigeration Industry

The Natural Refrigeration Foundation, which supports research and education programs benefiting the industrial refrigeration industry, awarded its largest scholarship commitment to date. The scholarship program provides a unique opportunity for students to learn about a technical field, attend IIAR’s national conference, be financially rewarded and contribute to the future of the planet.

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IIAR, RETA Celebrate and Encourage Women in the Industry

IIAR hosted its first women’s networking reception during the annual meeting and expo, celebrating women in the industry and providing a venue for them to connect.

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Automatic Oil Return Systems: Why, When, and How?

Safe oil draining is a subject that is well documented in IIAR publications, and workshops dealing with proper oil draining are always well-attended. Removing oil from an ammonia refrigeration system is routine maintenance that nearly every ammonia refrigeration system operator will encounter sooner or later.

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IIAR Continues Work Updating and Developing Standards

IIAR is known for its development of standards, and to date, IIAR has published nine ammonia standards and one CO2 standard. Per ANSI requirements, each standard must be updated at least every five years.

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Tax Planning for Each Generation

The utility of different tax strategies can fluctuate with your age and where you are in your career. Below we’ll take a look at how various tax strategies may apply to each generation.

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EPA Continues Work to Implement AIM Act

The Environmental Protection Agency is continuing its work to implement the American Innovation and Manufacturing (AIM) Act of 2020.

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Learning About Learning

 Many times we don’t think about how we learn, which is something we are or should be doing most of our lives. This fact was brought home to me this past winter as I became involved as an instructor in a winter sport I like. As I was learning to be an instructor and understanding how people might learn I could see a correlation between what and how someone is teaching and how people learn.

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Presidents Message by Gary Schrift

It’s that time of year again: after the conference and before we dive into the travel and rushed schedules of a new membership season. While there’s always a lot going on, these last few days of summer are a great time to reflect on what it means to be an IIAR member and what new plans we have for the future.

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Chairman’s Message by Trevor Hegg

I’m always impressed by the incredible progress IIAR makes on our industry’s goals every day and every week. It may be more exciting to write or hear about the big news – an updated standard, or a new member service – but just as important are the little things. Those things we don’t see but are always going on in the background. They represent the steady work we do as an organization every day.

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Costa Rica Moves on Mandatory IIAR Standards

All IIAR standards, including the Carbon Dioxide standard, ANSI/IIAR CO2, have been adopted within Costa Rica on a voluntary basis as National Norms, and the country is moving forward with its plans to make the standards mandatory. The next step is to prepare and educate industry professionals in the country on IIAR standards before the mandate takes effect.

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What happened to the IIAR Bulletins?

What happened to the IIAR Bulletins? Short Answer: The IIAR Bulletins were all “Superseded!” Let’s discuss the history of the onset of IIAR Bulletins and how their material was eventually distributed and captured to become superseded.

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Automatic Oil Return Systems: Why, When, and How? By Monika Witt, TH. Witt

Safe oil draining is a subject that is well documented in IIAR publications, and workshops dealing with proper oil draining are always well-attended. Removing oil from an ammonia refrigeration system is routine maintenance that nearly every ammonia refrigeration system operator will encounter sooner or later. One major advantage of ammonia systems is that oils are not normally soluble with ammonia and will therefore collect at the lowest spot in the system. However, accumulation of oil is gradual, and the location for accumulation must be suitable, i.e., calm enough, such that oil gets a chance to settle.

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IIAR Releases Second Edition of Guidelines on Manual Hand Valves

The IIAR Compliance Committee has updated the Guideline for Developing an Energy Control Plan for Manual Hand Valves and released a second edition. “After a guideline has been out and used in the industry, members and users will ask questions and provide input for consideration to make the guideline even clearer to use or capture additional information that enhances its value as a practice,” said Tony Lundell, senior director of standards and safety for IIAR. “An addendum typically will have minimal changes which could include simple edits, and/or provide statements that can add value to the guideline.”

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Natural Refrigerants Continue to Grow in Retail

Adoption of natural technologies in new and existing retail space is increasing as companies work to increase sustainability while meeting consumer, employer and shareholder expectations. “Many retailers, especially national chains, are prepared to make very large investments to significantly reduce their carbon footprint by converting to naturals in existing stores,” said Danielle Wright, executive director of the North American Sustainable Refrigeration Council.

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Circuit Court Supports Tampa Electric’s Response to a Release

The Eleventh Circuit has rejected an appeal from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the case against Tampa Electric Co. and its response to an ammonia release at a power generating facility in 2017. The court of appeals upheld the finding that the release was controlled and the clauses pertaining to emergency response were not applicable.

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Bonds, Interest Rates, and the Impact of Inflation

There are two fundamental ways that you can profit from owning bonds: from the interest that bonds pay, and from any increase in the bond’s price. Many people who invest in bonds because they want a steady stream of income are surprised to learn that bond prices can fluctuate, just as they do with any security traded in the secondary market. .

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Climate Change Policy in the Spotlight By Lowell Randel, IIAR Government Relations Director

President Biden has made addressing climate change a signature priority for his administration. Since his election, climate change policies have been at the forefront of agency actions, Congressional deliberations, and, most recently, before the Supreme Court.

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Always Learning

The following are some examples of being willing to learn versus not being willing to try to learn.

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Managing Your Energy Costs: It Can Be Done!

All too often, energy management projects with good potential will fail for any number of reasons. Most of these failures will be a result of the project not addressing key requirements for success, or not meeting the expectations of all users throughout the organization. This report is intended to provide a 10,000-foot view on taking a holistic approach to energy management and reduce the risk of project failure.

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President’s Message by Gary Schrift

This month I’m dedicating my column space to one of our organization’s most important ongoing activities, our membership. As an IIAR member, we all depend on you to take that essential first step to participate in the activism and advocacy of our industry, by keeping your membership current. If you are not yet a member, this is a great time to join IIAR.

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Chairman’s Message

It seems like we were all just in Savannah, and now we’re looking at starting another membership year. That means we’re wrapping up preparations now for the next IIAR annual conference, in Long Beach, Calif., March 12- 15, and I’m approaching the last annual meeting during my term as Chairman.

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HYDROCARBONS: IIAR EXPANDS HORIZONS WITH NEW STANDARD

IIAR is moving closer to completing its first standard for hydrocarbons—such as propane and butane—in refrigeration systems and is hoping to release the standard for public review in early 2023.

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IIAR Releases Updates to IIAR-1 and IIAR-3 Standards

IIAR reviews and updates existing standards every five years for periodic maintenance and has recently released updates on IIAR 1 and IIAR 3. The periodic maintenance reviews and updates meet the “Procedures for the Development of IIAR Standards for ANSI Approval” and ANSI’s Essential Requirements.

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IIAR Latin America Seminar Turns Out Record Attendees

The recent IIAR Seminar for Latin America in Guadalajara, Mexico, August 24- 26, brought together nearly 400 manufacturers, contractors, and end users from 12 countries for a unique opportunity to meet, learn and do business. Attendees took part in 14 technical paper presentations, five technomercials, networking events, and a heavy equipment exhibition. The event is the only one of its kind in the world outside the U.S. and is the most attended event in Latin America.

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Refrigerant Leaks in Commercial Mechanical Equipment Rooms

Industrial and commercial refrigeration systems use different types of heat transfer fluids (HTF), many of which are toxic and/or bad for the environment when they leak. The most common HTF refrigerants are Ammonia and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), however while ammonia has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 0, the HFC’s all have a very high GWPs and are currently being evaluated by the EPA for phase down as per the US Government’s December 2020 AIM Act and per the recent United States ratification of the Kigali agreement.

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EPA’s Proposed Amendments to RMP Burdensome on Industry

The Environmental Protection Agency has proposed amendments to its Risk Management Program regulations, which include several changes to the accident prevention program requirements, enhancements to the emergency preparedness requirements, and increased public availability of chemical hazard information.

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IIAR Comments on Risk Management Programs

The undersigned organizations submit these comments regarding Docket ID No. EPA-HQ- OLEM-2022-0174 Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under the Clean Air Act; Safer Communities by Chemical Accident Prevention (Proposed Rule).

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OSHA Considering Revisions to Process Safety Management Regulation

The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has recently taken steps to advance the rulemaking process to update the Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation. The OSHA effort is taking place in parallel to EPA’s Risk Management Program (RMP) rulemaking, raising concerns about coordination and consistency between the two regulatory schemes. The underlying rulemaking was actually initiated during the Obama Administration.

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Concerned About Timing the Market?

Buy low. Sell high.” While this age-old investment advice may seem simple, it can be extremely precarious due to its emphasis on market timing. During a bull market, investors following this advice may be reluctant to invest and too eager to sell.

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Its’ HOT!

Sometimes it may be difficult to understand but we all have free agency to believe what we want. Some people believe the earth is flat. Some believe we never landed on the moon. I suppose there are people who believe those amazing photos from various robotic machines on Mars are fake too.

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Don’t Curse the Purger

The goal of operators, contractors, and design engineers is to operate a closed loop refrigeration system as close to design intent as possible. The owner wants maximum value from the equipment and personnel employed at the facility. The presence of gases that do not liquify within the operating conditions add cost to the running of the system.

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President’s Message by Gary Schrift

In this February 2021 Edition of our Condenser Magazine, you will read about progress made with the California Air Resources Board, completion of the ice arena for the upcoming 2022 Olympics, an overview of research projects, and ANSI standards development…..all initiatives conducted by IIAR volunteers, members, and the organization as a whole towards furthering our mission to provide advocacy, education, and standards for the benefit of the global community in the safe and sustainable design, installation, and operation of ammonia and other natural refrigerants.

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Chairman’s Message Dave Schaefer

It is with great regret that we have to cancel the face-to-face 2021 IIAR conference in Palm Springs, CA. However, we look forward to an exciting second virtual conference that will be as informative and widely watched as the fantastic first-ever 2020 All-Natural Refrigerant Virtual Conference.

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The Covid Cold Chain

Before COVID-19, the cold chain wasn’t on most people’s radar, but shifting consumer demands, concern over food supply and specific healthcare needs during a pandemic put it in the spotlight. “It changed last spring when we started to see disruptions and challenges in the early days of the pandemic related to food,” said Lowell Randel, director of government affairs for IIAR and senior vice president of government and legal affairs for the Global Cold Chain Alliance. “The attention around the cold chain got even more intense with the vaccines coming online.”

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2022 Winter Olympics Embrace Natural Refrigerants, Set the Stage for the Future

For the first time, transcritical CO2 refrigeration will be used to make ice at a Winter Olympics, which will be hosted by Beijing in 2022, with the International Olympic Committee deciding to use CO2 refrigeration system for the most iconic venues for the Beijing Olympics. The decision, which the Beijing 2022 Organizing Committee announced as part of a joint alliance with the United Nations (UN) for the Climate Action framework agreement, led by the IOC, will decrease the overall carbon footprint of the Winter Olympic Games in Beijing.

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The ANSI-Approval Process: A Step-By-Step Guide

Well-developed standards are critical. They can empower and strengthen users with regard to marketplace position and even the global economy. They also ensure the safety of consumers and that the environment is protected.

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IIAR Improves Safety and Operations with Ongoing Research and Standards

As the world's leading advocate for the safe, reliable and efficient use of ammonia and other natural refrigerants, research is a critical component of IIAR’s work. IIAR’s ongoing research projects lead to improved safety and more efficient operations while also shaping industry standards.

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Colmac Coil Manufacturing Announces Leadership Change

Colmac Coil Manufacturing has announced that Joe Fazzari, P.E., has been promoted to the position of President, Colmac Coil Manufacturing, effective January 1st, 2021. Fazzari succeeds immediate former President Bruce Nelson, P.E. who has transitioned to a new role as Director of Innovation of Colmac Coil Manufacturing. Fazzari will have the oversight of all operations and strategic direction of Colmac Coil.

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CARB Moves Forward on Low-GWP Requirements for California Ice Rinks

At the December meeting of the California Air Resources Board, the board voted to approve the proposed regulation on hydrofluorocarbons that established a 150 GWP limit for new ice rinks and other types of large refrigeration systems in locations such as cold storage warehousing.

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Energy Performance Benchmarking: Considering the Efficiency of an Ammonia Refrigeration Installation

The number of countries ratifying the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol is steadily growing.

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Emergency Series Part 2: Emergency Shutdown and Response

This article has been updated from a previous version to distinguish the differences between a nuisance leak response and a HAZMAT response. Emergency response or responding to emergencies means a response effort by employees from outside the immediate release area or by other designated responders (i.e., mutual aid groups, local fire departments, etc.) to an occurrence which results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance.

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Unknowns

Participating in IIAR conferences, webinars, committees, and sub-committees has certainly increased my knowledge and my access to information. I have listened to and worked with very knowledgeable people from many backgrounds. Even after being involved in the ammonia refrigeration industry, and specifically IIAR for many decades, I am still learning. This reminds me of a famous statement I read in a book by Donald Rumsfeld, who served as George W. Bush’s secretary of defense.

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Choosing Between Traditional and Roth IRA’s

Each year, individuals with earned income may decide to put $6,000 ($7,000 if age 50 or older) into an IRA to save for retirement. The decision to contribute to a traditional IRA versus a Roth IRA has several key considerations, such as eligibility, tax-deductibility, and current versus future tax rate. The below chart outlines some features of each type of IRA to aid in the important decision of which IRA to fund annually.

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Biden Administration Takes Early Action on Regulatory Policy and Climate Change

Joe Biden began his presidency on January 20th by signing a series of Executive Orders impacting a wide range of policy issues. In just the first 10 days of his Administration, Biden took 42 individual executive actions, many of which reversed policies instituted by former President Trump. Regulatory review and climate change are among the major actions that will have an impact on the natural refrigerants industry.

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Pressure Relief Design Considerations From a PSM Compliance Standpoint (Part One)

Pressure relief design documentation is often the most misunderstood portion of the Process Safety Information required under 29 CFR 1910.119(d) (3)(i)(D) and 40 CFR Part 68.65(d)(1) (iv). The two regulations state that the relief system design AND design basis shall be included in the process safety information pertaining to the equipment in the process. The word “design” is fairly straightforward. The Cambridge Dictionary defines the word design, when used as a noun, as “a drawing or set of drawings showing how a … product is to be made and how it will work and look” or “the way in which something is planned and made.” Sounds simple, right? We need to have the technical specifications and physical arrangement of the relief design documented. Easily done. 

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President’s Message by Gary Schrift

Buckling our seatbelts, filling our own gas tanks, sending an email, and burning propane or natural gas in our homes for heating was once unthinkable. These technologies replaced dad’s arm across your chest during a fast stop, the serviceman pumping gas and checking your oil level, typewriters and the mail service, and coal or wood-burning stoves. There are times I wish to go back. Like when it’s pouring rain and I am nearly out of gas, or when my PC fails, and I feel helpless. Boy wouldn’t that gas station attendant or typewriter be great now.

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Chairman’s Message By Eric Johnston

Conference time is here again and although it’s hard to think we’ll spend one more year meeting online rather than in person, there’s a lot to look forward to. For the executive committee and your staff at headquarters, that means everyone is working hard to make sure our recent initiatives – from the renewed focus on IIAR member benefits to the many new projects our committees have started – will put us in the best possible position as we look forward to the eventual end of this pandemic.

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Pressure Relief Design Considerations From a PSM Compliance Standpoint (Part Two)

In the first article of this series, some of the factors that affect the relief capacity of a relief system that are often overlooked were highlighted to raise awareness of what is needed to properly document the safety relief design. In this article, we will discuss some of the pitfalls associated with internally relieving relief valves. It has long been held that the best way to relieve overpressure in an ammonia refrigeration system is to have the safety relief valves (SRVs) relieve into another part of the system, often simply on the opposite side of the downstream isolation valve. While this can be a viable option, it is often fraught with pitfalls.

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EPA Takes Aim at the Future Proposed rulemaking Jumpstarts HFC phasedown

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been given statutory authority to move forward with phasing down hydrofluorocarbons as part of the American Innovation and Manufacturing Act (AIM), which is expected to increase the long-term use of natural refrigerants. The agency has taken rapid action, and on May 3, it released its first proposed rulemaking under the AIM Act to establish an allocation system for the HFC phasedown.

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IIAR Brings Synchronous Learning Opportunities to Industrial Refrigeration

COVID-19 has changed the way learning takes place across the globe with virtual opportunities and distance learning taking off as social distancing and travel restrictions have kept people out of classrooms. IIAR is among those groups that pivoted to provide valuable learning opportunities to those within the refrigeration industry. In March, IIAR partnered with Don Fenton, a professor of mechanical and nuclear engineering at Kansas State University, to bring the 54th offering of the Industrial Refrigeration Workshop to participants through online synchronous learning, which allowed participants to interact with instructors in real-time.

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IIAR Annual Conference Continues with Virtual Platform

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration 2021 annual Natural Refrigeration Conference & Expo will continue with its virtual format, providing four days of technical knowledge, networking, and industrysponsored events for those involved in the natural refrigeration industry. The event first went virtual in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Industry Joins Together to Provide Valuable Training to OSHA Inspectors

Occupational Safety and Health Administration compliance officers are continuing to benefit from ammonia refrigeration education presented by the Industrial Refrigeration Consortium. The training, which is funded by IIAR, the Global Cold Chain Alliance, IRC, and OSHA, first launched in the fall of 2014.

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IIAR’s Annual Conference to Feature a Deep Dive on the Ammonia Piping Handbook

During the 2021 Natural Refrigeration Conference and Expo, IIAR will offer a four-hour training on the IIAR Refrigeration Piping Handbook. “It will examine all the parts of the handbook and provide an overview of the content,” said Eileen McKeown, vice president for marketing and sales for IIAR. The educational session, Ammonia Piping Handbook Education Program: Exploring an Essential Tool for Designers, Contractors, and Operators, will take place on Thursday, June 24 at 11:00 a.m. Eastern time.

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IIAR Annual Conference Continues with Virtual Platform

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration 2021 annual Natural Refrigeration Conference & Expo will continue with its virtual format, providing four days of technical knowledge, networking, and industry sponsored events for those involved in the natural refrigeration industry. The event first went virtual in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Technical Papers and Workshops at a Glance

Recognized and Generally Accepted Good Engineering Practices (RAGAGEP) are written documents intended for use in the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of process equipment. There has been a move in the ammonia refrigeration industry towards standardization, yet there are historical variants which often cause confusion. This session will examine RAGAGEP variants and discuss the importance of adhering to IIAR standards. We’ll also look at tools for keeping RMP/PSM programs on-track and ensuring that a process adheres to RAGAGEP standards. Uriah Donaldson, Resource Compliance

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The Industry at Rest: How SEC Benchmarking will Create New Momentum in the Refrigeration Sector for Mixed-Use Refrigerated Warehousing.

Newton’s first law in part states that an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an external force. And this is where we are at the moment. Our industry, specifically in the mixed-use refrigerated warehouse sector is at rest. Or differently expressed, at a standstill when it comes to ongoing improvements, new ideas, and implementation of new technology that has the potential to make systems and plants more energy-efficient and creates ongoing savings for our clients.

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Rising Rates: Strategies for Managing Bond Risks

Federal Reserve monetary policies can affect the entire fixed-income market, and the prospect of rising interest rates is a major concern for bond investors. Regardless of the rate environment, however, bonds are a mainstay of investors who want to generate income or dampen the effects of stock market volatility on their portfolios. Now that the Fed is raising rates toward more typical historical levels, you may have questions about how higher rates might affect your fixed-income investments and what you can do to help mitigate the effect on your portfolio.

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OSHA Ramps Up COVID Enforcement By Lowell Randel, IIAR Government Relations Director

Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a high priority for the Biden Administration. Despite increases in vaccinations and lower cases in many parts of the country, President Biden is calling on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to ramp up its enforcement efforts to regulate workplaces. Biden was critical of OSHA during the Trump Administration for not being aggressive enough in protecting workers from COVID-19.

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Different Views on Regulations in Europe and the USA

In my February 2019 article, I examined the need for sprinkler systems in machinery rooms in the USA and their prohibition in Europe. Afterward, I was contacted by Jeff Shapiro who indicated that Anders Lindborg, an honorary life member of IIAR and expert on ammonia releases, had changed his mind just before he passed away and was no longer arguing against sprinkler systems in machinery rooms. Jeff also provided his article from 2011 that laid out the different perspectives of experts from each side. It is evident that this has been a long-running discussion and has caused some confusion within the industry.

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Scholarships Provide Multiple Learning Opportunities for Recipients

The Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation, which supports research and education programs benefiting the industrial refrigeration industry, is currently accepting applications for IIAR’s Founders Scholarship. The scholarship is awarded annually to collegiate juniors exhibiting exceptional character and interest in pursuing an engineering or related technical degree leading to a career in the refrigeration field.

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IIAR Standards: A Look Back

Bob Czarnecki can’t remember exactly when he started as chairman of IIAR’s Standards Committee, but he thinks it was 10 to 12 years ago. “The former chair had some medical issues, and I was filling in for him. So, I’m blurred as to when I started,” Czarnecki said. “When I first started, the mandate was to develop, maintain and interpret standards. At the time, we had two standards that were ANSI approved. Since then, we have developed eight other standards that have gotten ANSI approval.”

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President’s Message by Gary Schrift

After a summer of new pandemic news, normalcy has never felt so close and yet so far away at the same time. By the time of this column’s publication, your IIAR staff will be busy finalizing a return to in-person IIAR conferences in 2022. We can all look forward now to seeing familiar faces in Savannah, Georgia, next year. And at the same time, the “old normal” will never be the “new normal.”

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Chairman’s Message by Eric Johnston

We’re laying the groundwork for 2022’s return to an in-person annual conference and setting new agendas these days. And even though I’m well into my term as your IIAR Chairman, I’d like to take this opportunity to welcome everyone – new and renewing members alike.

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Reporting Release Rates: How to find the middle ground

Estimating the amount of ammonia lost due to an accidental release can be a complex process and when they do occur, end-users want to avoid underpredicting or over-predicting release quantities. Presently, there is not a single reference guideline that provides details for calculating ammonia quantities released as a consequence of incidents.

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International Fire Code to Defer to IIAR for Ammonia Issues

After years of work, it is more than likely that all code bodies will now refer to IIAR for ammonia refrigeration requirements by 2024. IIAR has made significant progress towards this goal over the past 20 years, but there was one outlier—the International Fire Code. However, the IFC’s technical committee has approved a proposal for the 2024 edition of its model code, deferring all matters related to ammonia refrigeration to IIAR.

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Ammonia System Evacuation — How Low Do You Go?

Removal of non-condensables and excess water is essential when starting up new refrigeration systems or large retrofits. Non-condensables contribute to higher than necessary head pressure, and excessive water in a system can cause inefficiency and operational problems. In all refrigeration systems, non-condensables and water vapor are removed from systems by vacuum pumps prior to charging with refrigerant. Removing liquid water (dehydration), can be done by “pulling” a deep vacuum – enough to boil the standing water and remove the vapor through the vacuum pump.

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IIAR Hosts Successful 50th Annual Meeting

IIAR 2021 Natural Refrigeration Online Conference & Virtual Expo brought technical education, industrial trend insights, and information on products and services to natural refrigeration professionals in June. This was the second time IIAR presented its annual meeting online as COVID-19 continued to create potential disruptions and planning challenges.

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IIAR Petitions EPA for Increased Hydrofluorocarbon Restrictions

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration and its industry partners have petitioned the Environmental Protection Agency to use its authority under the American Innovation and Manufacturing Act to restrict the use of hydrofluorocarbons within the refrigeration sector. The AIM Act is a new climate law passed in December 2020.

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Is the Era of Ammonia Liquid Overfeed Ending?

In four years, it will be the centenary of the liquid overfeed patent issued to YORK Corporation. The liquid overfeed plant came into widespread use around the middle of the last century. This coincided with an upsurge in the consumption of frozen foods that led to the construction of very large freezing plants that warranted the practical introduction of the liquid overfeed concept.

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Revocable Living Trust

A revocable living trust can be a useful and practical estate planning tool for certain individuals, but not for everyone. This type of trust is most commonly used to avoid probate because, unlike property that passes by will, trust assets are distributed directly to heirs. This type of trust is also used as a way to maintain management of one’s financial affairs during a period of incapacity because someone else can immediately take charge when needed. A revocable living trust does not minimize income, gift, or estate taxes, nor does it shelter trust assets from creditors in most cases.

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The Case for Hazard and Operability Methodology

There is a vigorous debate within the industrial refrigeration industry surrounding whether or not the use of hazard and operability methodology, referred to as HAZOP, should be considered the industry standard for hazard reviews and process hazard analyses. While there are advocates for and against employing HAZOP methodology, Stephanie Smith, senior engineer II with Risk Management Professionals Inc., said her research and experience show that the benefits generally outweigh the costs.

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From Dry to Hybrid: A 360 Degree View of Cooling Technologies

Cooling technologies affect price and cooling capacity, and there are a variety of fundamentally different dry cooling technologies available for cooling water/glycol mixtures. The decision for or against one of these technologies during the planning stage of a project has an impact not only directly on the investment sum but also on the subsequent operating costs of the plant across the entire life cycle.

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A Great way to Learn

The following incident had many lessons learned for both the facility and the outside responders. Think about what would happen, or what actions would be taken if this happened at your facility.

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Identifying and Quantifying Fugitive Emissions from Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Industrial ammonia refrigeration systems vary widely in their engineering design, size, scope, and technology features. However, they universally experience some level of refrigerant loss throughout their operational life. Refrigerant losses from industrial ammonia refrigeration systems originate from any number of sources including uncontrolled releases from incidents and accidents, intentional releases during maintenance activities, and fugitive emissions. 

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President’s Message by Gary Schrift

In this issue of the Condenser, we’re looking at how IIAR’s mission continues to shape the world of refrigeration, even as that world is constantly shifting. From our standards writing efforts to new training program development, the task of influencing and even guiding regulatory activity so that it keeps pace with new technology and an ever-evolving business landscape – falls to us.

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Chairman’s Message

It’s amazing how quickly a year(or two) can go by. Our 2022 annual conference, March 6-9 in Savannah, Georgia, is on the horizon already, and while that means we’re approaching the last annual meeting during my term as Chairman, this year’s conference represents something much more important – a return to in-person conferences and the beginning of many exciting developments for IIAR and its members.

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Building the Base: IIAR RELEASES CO2 STANDARD, IIAR-2 UPDATE, NEW GUIDELINES

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration’s history is rooted in standards, and the association has released its latest update to IIAR-2, which was first released in 1974, and its first-ever safety standard for carbon dioxide IIAR CO2.

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IIAR-2 Updates Address Detection, Ventilation and More

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration has released the latest version of IIAR-2, which covers the design of safe closed-circuit ammonia refrigeration systems. IIAR-2 was first released in 1974 and received its last major update in 2015.

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EPA Grants IIAR’s Petition for Increased Hydrofluorocarbon Restrictions

The Environmental Protection Agency has granted a petition from the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration and its industry partners to use the agency’s authority under the American Innovation and Manufacturing Act to restrict the use of hydrofluorocarbons within the refrigeration sector.

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CO2 Standard Provides Guidance on Growing Segment of the Industry

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration has released its safety standard for CO2 closed-circuit systems. The standard covers all phases of the CO2 system lifecycle, from design, installation, and start-up to inspection, testing, and maintenance. It encompasses the CO2 portion of a cascade system, systems using CO2 as a secondary fluid, systems operating part- or full-time in the transcritical cycle, and heat pumps.

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IIAR Releases Critical Task Guideline

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration (IIAR) has recently published the first edition of a new guideline titled “Critical Task Guidance for Ammonia Refrigeration System Emergency Planning.”

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As HFCs are Phased-Down, Disincentives for Ammonia Must be Avoided

With the passage and ongoing implementation of the American Innovation and Manufacturing (AIM) Act at the federal level, some states are also taking actions to phase down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). As policymakers move away from HFCs, it is also important that ammonia policies be kept in an appropriate balance, to avoid unintended consequences of policies that may serve as disincentives for facilities to move to natural refrigerants.

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Improving PHAs With Sample-Safeguards Checklists

For many ammoniarefrigeration systems, a what-if/checklist processhazard analysis (PHA), with brainstorming about unique situations enhanced by a comprehensive safeguards checklist, provides a robust method for identifying hazards, analyzing risks, and developing any needed recommendations.

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Bitcoin: Fad or The Future?

If someone told you about an investment that has made some people millionaires overnight and has both several high-profile supporters and a global reach, would you be tempted to invest? If you were then told that the same investment also could lose most or all of its value almost overnight, and you might not have access to your money when you need it, how would it sound now?

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Ready? Really Ready?

Having a well-thoughtout and functional emergency plan can be challenging. I have seen some very good emergency plans, but I have also noticed that several plans are not as complete as they could be. This seems to be a tough lesson to learn, and you may have experienced this. Let me start with an example of a conversation similar to what I have heard many times, and then give some considerations for improving an emergency plan.

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IIAR Participates in Coalition Amicus Brief to the Court Regarding Release Investigations

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) is appealing to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit a recent decision by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (“OSHRC”), and an administrative law judge that favored the Tampa Electric Company (“TECO”). The case surrounds actions that TECO performed when responding to a release of ammonia that occurred at a power generating facility.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

Looking at the rich and exciting program for our association’s 2020 annual conference in Orlando, I see an extraordinary palette of achievements by IIAR members over the past several years. While this will be my last conference as IIAR president, I am proud of our members’ accomplishments, which form a strong foundation for further growth and continuing efforts that will broaden the applications of natural refrigerants both in the familiar industrial setting and in the expanding retail commercial sector.

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Hawaii and Energy Efficiency

Mark Twain once wrote that Hawaii was “The loveliest fleet of islands that lie anchored in any ocean.” I first visited Hawaii just a few years after the world had experienced its second “energy crisis”. In 1979 the Iranian Revolution had disrupted the world’s oil supply and overnight the price of oil doubled to $39.50 per barrel.

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IIAR TECHNICAL PROGRAM UNITES INDUSTRY

One of the most interesting and important programs at the IIAR annual conference in Orlando is the presentation of technical papers. At this year’s conference, industry experts from both the industrial and commercial sides of the business will present technical papers at the IIAR Technical Program.

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India Eyes IIAR Standards, Other International Efforts See Success

While much of the efforts of IIAR’s International Committee in the past few years have been focused on Latin America, the committee recently began activities to develop contacts and influence in India

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IIAR Says Goodbye to Longterm President Dave Rule

Dave Rule began his long and esteemed career in the industrial refrigeration industry by way of obtaining his first job in none other than the truck manufacturing industry. His first job gave him a quick education and a good understanding of steel fabrication and working in manufacturing. All skills he would soon apply to his next challenge. Dave quickly transitioned from the truck manufacturing industry to the industrial refrigeration industry as an employee with Baltimore Aircoil (BAC). He came in as a material controls assistant and quickly grew to a lead position in sales and technical support.

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IIAR Membership Advances Industry with Committee Work

The past year was a productive one for IIAR’s numerous committees. From in-depth technical research to international outreach, IIAR’s membership has been busy advancing the industry. Here’s a detailed catalog of each committee’s activities, and what they hope to address in the next year and beyond.

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Welcome to the 2020 IIAR Natural Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition!

It is my pleasure to welcome all of you to the 2020 IIAR Natural Refrigeration Conference and EXPO here in Orlando. Your IIAR Staff and Executive Committee have worked very hard to provide you with the largest technical program ever offered at an IIAR conference along< with many opportunities to network with all of your IIAR friends and colleagues.

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IIAR Unveils New Energy and Sustainability Committee

Amid a high level of interest from members, IIAR’s newly established Energy and Sustainability Committee will have its inaugural meeting at this year’s annual conference in Orlando. At last year’s IIAR Annual Conference, after much discussion and deliberation, the IIAR chairman appointed a task force to investigate the needs of the industry’s enduser community with regards to energy and sustainability in their facilities, said Bruce Nelson, speaking on behalf of the committee.

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Foundation Founders Scholarship Program Sees Continued Growth

Since its introduction in 2016, the Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation’s Founders Scholarship has helped connect talented young people to the world of natural refrigerants by awarding students who exhibit exceptional character, academic prowess and a healthy interest in pursuing an engineering or related technical degree with financial and professional assistance.

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What? I didn’t know that

I recently read an article about a man that spent a considerLESSON able amount of time tromping through the wilderness back in the early 1900s. In his journa he made a statement that I found interesting. He wrote, “I don’t know where I am, but it doesn’t matter.” I am concerned when someone doesn’t know where they are or what is going on, and they think it “doesn’t matter.” I think it can matter a lot where you are, and what you know when you are there.

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CSB Establishes New Chemical Incident Reporting Rule

On February 5, 2020, the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) released its Final Rule on accidental chemical release reporting. The rule creates a new reporting requirement for facilities that experience a chemical release. The enabling legislation that established the CSB included a requirement that the agency develop a reporting mechanism to help identify incidents that warrant CSB investigation.

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Is an Ammonia Refrigeration Evaporative Condenser a PermitRequired Confined Space (PRCS)?

This article will explore the questions so many have regarding their evaporative condensers and OSHA’s PermitRequired Confined Space standard(s) (29 CFR 1910.146 and 29 CFR 1926.1201 - .1213).

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Country Boy Moves to Washington DC

Imagine the headline: “After a thirty-two-year career in industrial refrigeration, man returns to industrial refrigeration, starting his new position on April Fool’s day, while working at home during a once in a lifetime pandemic with a major event canceled, which has, in turn, cut the organization’s revenue stream by almost 50%” . . . No, these are not headline stories from your Linkedin Daily Rundown! They are the major events in my professional life since January of this year. And I could not be more blessed and excited to take on the challenge.

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Nothing is More Constant Than Change

To me, our conference has been almost like a large family reunion. It was with a heavy heart that the conference had to< be canceled by the Executive committee. The final factor in the decision to cancel was when the World Health Organization declared that there was a worldwide pandemic caused by COVID-19.

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COPING WITH COVID-19 How the Refrigeration Industry is Safeguarding Employees and Operations

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a global crisis and disrupted communities worldwide. Those in the refrigeration industry have also felt the effects as they work to keep essential operations running, ensure employee and facility safety, and meet the needs of their cusromers.

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HFC Phase Out Continues Amid Uncertainty Over Regulations

Refrigeration industry end users are continuing to phase out ozone-depleting and high-global-warming-potential refrigerants to comply with regulatory requirements and proactively address environmental needs, but a lack of concrete direction from the federal government has resulted in uncertainty as well as a patchwork of state-by-state efforts.

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IIAR’s Virtual Conference to Deliver Technical Papers, Workshops and Panels

With COVID-19 limiting travel and causing people to stay home, the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration transitioned its popular in-person annual conference, originally scheduled for March in Orlando, to a virtual conference that will provide online learning, beginning May 18.

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IIAR’s Virtual Conference Sunday Session Will Focus on Secondary Coolants

Among the sessions set for the IIAR’s Virtual Conference is a special educational session covering the use of secondary coolants for industrial ammonia refrigeration systems. Originally intended to be the Sunday Education

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IIAR Energy Efficiency Committee Focuses on Sustainability

Despite the cancellation of the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration 2020 national conference, IIAR’s newest committee, the Energy Efficiency, and Sustainability Committee, is moving forward with its mission. The panel’s inaugural meeting was to have been at the Orlando conference.

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Foundation Celebrates Successful Fundraising Year

The Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation’s 2019 fundraising program was< extremely successful, raising more than one million dollars, according to Joe Mandato, ARF’s Trustee Chair who spearheaded the effort, which specifically focused on trustee-level pledges of $50,000 or more. “This was

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It’s a New World

Early in March, I was at a training meeting for Search & Rescue in my county. One of the first topics discussed was the upcoming training. In early March there were only 2 people who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the county. Still, I felt we should be proactive, and postpone training for March and April, just in case things changed. There was also an Assistant Professor from a local medical college in the meeting that strongly supported my suggestion.

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IIAR, ASTI, Developing Emergency Safety Guidance

After an ammonia incident occurred in 2012 that resulted in the loss of life, the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration took steps to enforce procedures employees must follow when performing rescue or medical duties.

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IIAR’s Academy of Natural Refrigerants Certificate Program

As a recent graduate of an IIAR Academy of Natural Refrigerants (ANR) to share some details of my experience with you. Overall, it was a great experience and I hope that after you read this article you will also be motivated to register for an ANR certificate course.

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Regulatory Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic

The current COVID-19 pandemic is having significant impacts on individuals and businesses across the globe. While many businesses continue to be closed, or their operations changed or restricted, companies designated as part of the critical infrastructure have maintained operations throughout the crisis.

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International Activities Continue Remotely, Despite Pandemic

Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration has post-poned its international activities, with conferences scheduled in Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador all moved to the winter and spring of 2021.

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A Reminder of the Past and Present

First and foremost, I want to thank all IIAR members for your past support of IIAR through your participation in all the activities and programs that make our industry safer and more successful than ever before, especially for your most recent financial support and participation with IIAR’s first-ever virtual conference.

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Nothing is More Constant Than Change

We are very happy to report that the IIAR-6 Standard for Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Closed-Circuit Ammonia Refrigeration Systems is ready to go. A lot of effort went into the development of the Standard and now the class, by many volunteers on the Standards Committee and the IIAR Staff.

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ONSITE TO ONLINE. HOW THE PANDEMIC IS CHANGING TRAINING AND SUPPORT

As the COVID-19 pandemic sweeps across the globe, stay-at-home orders and social distancing have changed the way businesses operate. Every business function has been affected, including training, which is a critical component of the natural refrigerant industry. In response, people in the industry have turned to virtual options, leveraging technology that is already available and investing in additional tools.

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World’s First Natural Refrigerants Virtual Conference a Great Success

On March 11 – just three days before the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration annual conference was scheduled to begin – the World Health Organization announced COVID-19 was officially a global pandemic. Immediately following that announcement, IIAR’s board voted, for the safety of members and exhibitors, to cancel what would have been IIAR’s 49th annual Conference and Expo.

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IIAR Congratulates 2020 Award for Presentation Excellence Winners

The coronavirus pandemic forced International Institute for Ammonia Refrigeration to tune in for an unprecedented virtual national conference, and IIAR officials said everyone from the conference attendees to the educational program presenters turned out to make the online conference one of the best.

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End Users Eye Natural Refrigerants

End users are increasingly looking to natural refrigerants to boost efficiencies and reduce their carbon footprints.

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Managing Change

Refrigeration facilities are not static entities. Changes to personnel, equipment, technology and procedures can all impact the operations. To ensure the safety of employees and the overall success of the operation, change must be managed appropriately.

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Foundation Leaders Report Record Fundraising, New Initiatives

Despite the global health crisis and the International Institute for Ammonia Refrigeration’s switch to an all-virtual annual conference, leaders of the Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation said they are optimistic for the future and steadfast in the Foundation’s mission.

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How can I find water?

Thinking about water LESSON and where to find it, I go back a few years ago to when one of my daughters and I were hiking the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT). We planned to do a north bound hike, which starts at the U.S./ Mexico border east of San Diego and heads to Canada. Hoping to avoid wet and cold weather (yes even in southern California), and to also avoid very dry conditions, we started hiking in midApril. Fortunately, and unfortunately, the year we hiked it was one of the driest on record.

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SECURE Act Legislation Includes Retirement Plan Changes

The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancements (SECURE) Act increases saving opportunities for Americans, with many of the provisions becoming effective January 1, 2020. The SECURE Act contains 29 separate provisions; below is a summary of some of the more substantial changes.

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Critical Tasks for Emergency Action Planning – IIAR’s new Guidance Document

When handled correctly, ammonia is one of the safest gases to work with, Gary Smith, president and CEO of the Ammonia Safety and Training Institute, said in his presentation at IIAR’s Virtual Conference and Expo. Over 5 million tons are used every year in approximately 7,000 facilities across the country with significantly fewer incidents per facility when compared to other chemicals.

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EPA Announces Termination of Enforcement Discretion, Region 1 Reports Results of GDC Pilot Program

On June 29th, EPA announced the termination date of its temporary enforcement discretion policy contained in a March 26th memorandum entitled: “COVID-19 Implications for EPA’s Enforcement and Compliance Assurance Program”. The policy was instituted with the recognition that travel restrictions and stay-at-home orders may impact the ability of some facilities to meet certain compliance requirements during the pandemic.

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IIAR’s International Activity Grows Despite Pandemic

The global health crisis has impacted nearly all aspects of the refrigeration industry, and by extension, the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration and its committees have had to adapt to the changing landscape. Against this headwind, IIAR’s International Committee, led by Yesenia Rector, has been working to expand the Institute’s footprint beyond North America.

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Case History: A Study of Incidents in the Ammonia Refrigeration Industry

In June of 2005, the author initiated a project to collect data related to ammonia incidents using information from publicly available sources. For the past 14 years, the data have been input into an Excel spreadsheet every day. This information was analyzed and compared with historical incident data available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Risk Management Plan database and a 2008 IIAR survey.

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Moving Forward While Sitting Still

This month, IIAR’s big news is that our IIAR 2021 Natural Refrigeration Conference & Heavy Equipment Expo originally scheduled to take place March 28-31, 2021 in Palm Springs, California, has been rescheduled to be held June 20-23, 2021, in Palm Springs, California.

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Chairman’s Message By Dave Schaffer

As we all know Covid 19 has affected almost every corner of the globe. It’s been a very active year for everyone because of the pandemic. Our IIAR staff worked very hard to pull off, among other things a very successful industryfirst all-natural refrigerant virtual conference. Our committees have also been very active despite meetings that are now, of course, conducted remotely.

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Growing GREEN. HOW NATURALS ARE GAINING A SHARE OF NEW MARKETS

Hydrofluorocarbons occupy a market space that is very large and diverse ranging from residential through all types of commercial to industrial. While HFCs appear to be a good choice from a perceived safety benefit, they are still pollutants and increasingly regulated chemicals. Regulatory requirements are forcing HFC users to make a switch to lower global warming potential systems, and it is impacting different markets in different ways.

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IIAR Focuses on Year-Round Education, Prepares for 2021’s Annual Meeting

IIAR has several educational offerings available for its members, ranging from online training classes and webinars to technical seminars at its annual meeting, and the association is continually working to improve and enhance all it offers. The past year put a spotlight on how content is delivered, and IIAR is engaging members and reviewing its past success as it plans future content.

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Industry Groups Support CARB Rule Encouraging Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Ice Rinks and Stationary Refrigeration Equipment

California is on track to become the first regulator to address the global warming potential of refrigerants used in ice rinks. “That isn’t to say ice rinks aren’t covered in other regulations, but it’s the first to target ice rinks specifically, which could set a global precedent,” said Christina Starr, senior policy analyst for the Environmental Investigation Agency. “That’s why it’s so important to have a 150 GWP threshold, which sends the right signal about what is feasible in this sector.”

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Why IIAR Needs Energy Performance Benchmarking More Than Ever

All industry sectors across the world ranging from utilities, manufacturing, food preservation through to comfort cooling, food storage and transportation face unprecedented challenges concerning energy efficiency improvements and emissions reductions.

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PSM Safety and Compliance in the Age of Pandemics

Our world has turned upside down in 2020: close to 9.5 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the U.S; over 233,000 deaths in the U.S.; people being quarantined or sheltering in place; social distancing; non-essential businesses shut with skeleton crews; essential businesses having to implement enhanced sanitation procedures, social distancing, PPE requirements, employee health screening; visitor restrictions; the list goes on and on and on.

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Pre-Emergency Readiness is Well Managed Business

As much as we don’t like to admit it, ammonia leaks happen. Even in systems we feel we manage and care for exceptionally well. But with increasing turnover resulting in less experience on off-shifts, where management presence is the lightest, and increased wear and tear from heightened demands being put on aging equipment, leaks are just part of the business. However, with some time spent on pre-emergency planning and emergency response, we can get ahead of this ever-looming vulnerability, making leaks a well-managed part of the business.

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Real or Virtual?

Life during the past sev- LESSON eral months has been a challenge when deciding if something might be done “for real” or must be done “virtually”. This past July I was scheduled to be a back-up guide for groups of young men as the various groups attempted to hike up nine prominent peaks in my area. Needless to say, COVID-19 stopped that activity. However, I was still interested in doing those peaks, several of which I had never done.

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The Mathematics of Filling Tax Brackets

Utilizing (or “filling”) the lower tax brackets is a simple, yet often overlooked, tax planning strategy. Consider the fictional case of Chuck and Debbie to help you better understand the mathematics of filling the lower tax brackets in order to improve your overall tax situation.

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IAR Works with Allies Across the Globe on Committee Work and Standards

IIAR has expanded the number of memorandums of understanding (MOU) it has with countries, with Spain and Australia becoming the last two countries to become IIAR’s Allied Organizations. Other countries with MOUs include Columbia, Chile, China, and Costa Rica.

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Policy Implications of a Biden Presidency

While there are still some uncertainties about the final results of the 2020 elections, including key runoff elections for two Senate seats in the state of Georgia, it is important to look at the potential policy implications of a Biden presidency. As with all presidential administrations, there will be some policy changes that can be accomplished simply through executive action.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration is growing, both within the United States and abroad, thanks to the use of natural refrigerants and IIAR’s efforts to bring awareness of their value to other countries.

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Chairman’s Message by Mike Lynch

As I wind up my year as chairman of IIAR, I look back and see all the wonderful accomplishments that you – our members and committees have achieved, setting the stage for even more in the year ahead.

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OLD GAME, NEW CARDS

Maintenance costs, particularly for labor, are increasing, and the traditional material specified for piping and valve systems – painted carbon steel – is changing as end users search for solutions to minimize maintenance and increase reliability. “The presence of corrosion creates specific issues, particularly with uninsulated valves and controls, that must be managed by those in the refrigeration industry,” said Bob Czarnecki, a member of the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration board of directors.

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The Sustainability Challenge

To date, activities within the International Institute for Ammonia Refrigeration have dealt exclusively with ammonia safety and ammonia refrigeration systems. That’s who we are, where we come from and what we’ve done well. Recently, however, it has become clear that IIAR needs to take up the challenge of promoting the safe and efficient use of all the natural refrigerants – ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, air and water.

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Costa Rica Adopts IIAR Standards

In late January Costa Rica officially adopted several standards from the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration to govern ammonia refrigeration facilities in the country. Costa Rica is the first to take such a progressive move in Latin America, and others in the region are taking note.

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Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) of Manually Operated Hand Valves

Trying to understand and properly apply standards and regulations is not only a time consuming effort, but also challenging. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has Standard 29 CFR 1910.147, titled “The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout)”, which is commonly referred to as “Lockout/Tagout”.

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Foundation Research Projects Summary

The Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation is dedicated to furthering the advancement of the knowledge and technology that drives the growth of natural refrigerants. The Foundation’s three ongoing research projects are helping the industry address and solve specific technical problems as well as contribute new information to the code and regulatory communities. Here, the Foundation’s research project leaders give a summary of where and how project information is being produced and used.

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Machinery Rooms in Europe and USA: Sprinkler Systems

Machinery rooms are enclosed zones with mechanical ventilation, separated from public space and accessible only to authorized personnel. They serve primarily as dry and protected places for the components of a refrigeration system, mainly compressors and pressure vessels, but also additional equipment, for example in secondary systems the evaporator and/or water cooled condensers.

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Welcome to the 2019 IIAR Natural Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition!

We are coming off of a very successful conference in Colorado Springs last year where we celebrated our 40th IIAR Annual Conference. This year we are pleased to return to Phoenix after many years. The last time we were here was in 1981 and the conference, our organization and our industry looked very different.

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IIAR’s Conference Tech Papers Expand to Include Commercial Sector

One main focus of the technical program this year was to help educate commercial decision makers and designers. “Commercial end users are starting to become more interested in natural refrigerants,” Eric Smith, IIAR’s vice president and technical director, said. “Now people are beginning to wonder about their applications – how well it’s been going, the difficulties they’ve encountered and which natural refrigerants they should choose.”

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Charitable Contributions from IRAs

You must be 70½ or older in order to be eligible to make QCDs. You simply instruct your IRA trustee to make a distribution directly from your IRA (other than SEP and SIMPLE IRAs) to a qualified charity. The distribution must be one that would otherwise be taxable to you. You can exclude up to $100,000 of QCDs from your gross income each year.

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John Yencho Retires from Hansen

We respectfully announce the retirement of one of Hansen’s most dedicated and long-term contributors - John Yencho. John has been a key contributor to our success over his 34+ years of service and the industry. Although he is officially retiring, we expect him to remain involved with Hansen’s on-going innovation efforts.

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Was it Communicated?

Some may recall the statement made in the 1967 “What we’ve got here is failure to communicate.” Clear and understood communication is important in almost all interactions we have. As important as good communication is, we still have challenges in making it happen.Some may recall the statement made in the 1967 “What we’ve got here is failure to communicate.” Clear and understood communication is important in almost all interactions we have. As important as good communication is, we still have challenges in making it happen.

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Supreme Court Declines to Hear HFC Case, EPA Proposes Removing HFC Leak Requirements

On January 18, 2019, President Trump signed legislation to extend the authority for the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) program. CFATS, administered by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), was set to expire on January 19th unless legislation was enacted to continue its authority. Industry and DHS called for reauthorization to prevent a lapse in authority.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

Having just returned from IIAR’s exciting 2019 annual conference, I’m even more committed to the importance of our association and the many advantages of membership. The conference, held in Phoenix in March, was another record-setter in terms of attendance and the span of our technical program.

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Secondary Systems Offer IIAR Opportunity For Expansion

As your IIAR chairman for this year, I would like to thank and congratulate everyone who made our 2019 annual meeting in Phoenix a great success, and especially to welcome all our new IIAR members. Your participation and spirit of volunteer leadership is essential to helping our industry meet the many challenges that lay ahead.

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Future-Proofing Refrigerants

Against a shifting regulator landscape, with restrictions of hydrofluorocarbon synthetic refrigerants growing by fits and starts, use of natural refrigerants is increasing among a widening range of companies seeking to ensure that their investments will be viable in the future.

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IIAR Releases New Standards and Updates

The IIAR presently has eight American National Standard Institute (ANSI) approved standards at this time and three additional new standards that are presently in development making a total of 11 standards overall.

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Putting Funds to Use to Drive Innovative Solutions for the Industry, Foundation Members

At ARF, our mission, as a nonprofit research and education foundation, is to promote, fund and provide scientific and educational projects that are related to the use of ammonia, natural refrigerants and industrial refrigeration. It’s not only our mission, but it is our reality.

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Well-attended Auxilary Session at IIAR Phoenix Conference Explored Energy Efficiencies

Energy efficiency was the focus of a well-attended and extensive auxiliary educational program at the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration annual conference, held in March in Phoenix.

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IIAR Announces Awards for Presentation Excellence

Each year, some of the best minds and top talent in the industrial and commercial refrigeration industry gather from around the world at the IIAR Natural Refrigeration Conference & Expo. These experts present technical papers at the IIAR Technical Program in conjunction with this event, and each year the best, most informative presenters are honored with awards of excellence. Below are 2019’s recipients.

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International Committee Focuses on Standards Adoption

The International Committee of the IIAR is working across Latin America to educate leaders in several countries in the region, helping them adopt IIAR standards to better promote safety, sustainability and international commerce.

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IIAR, NASRC, Partnership Delivers New Technical Track

At this year’s IIAR Natural Refrigeration Conference and Expo, held in Phoenix, the IIAR announced its partnership with the North American Sustainable Refrigeration Council. Through this partnership, educational programming at the conference was expanded to include a Commercial and Food Retail education Track.

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Safety Committee Working on Hazardous Energy Lockout Standard for Manual Valves

The IIAR’s safety committee is continuing its efforts to draft a guideline for the application of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standard 29 CFR 1919.147, more commonly called “the control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout),” or LOTO for short.

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Charitable Giving

An outright gift is one that benefits the charity immediately and exclusively. With an outright gift you get an immediate income and gift tax deduction.

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Who’s Prepared?

I have been in the industrial refrigeration industry for, well, a long time. Over the decades LESSON I have seen many changes in technology and regulations. However, one thing that in more recent years really stands out is who is prepared to take over a position?

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Corrosion Allowance

The latest version of IIAR 2, Standard for Safe Design of Closed-Circuit Ammonia Refrigeration Systems will soon be published as “IIAR 2-2014, with Addendum A”. Among other important changes to the standard, there will no longer be a requirement for an additional 1/16” corrosion allowance (CA) on ammonia refrigeration vessels. The design of pressure vessels results in a calculation for the minimum thickness (Tmin) at various places on a vessel (e.g., shell, seams, heads, and nozzels).

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Green New Deal and Climate Policy

Climate policy is taking center stage with Democrats in Congress who gained control of the House of Representatives after the 2018 elections and the over 20 candidates vying for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2020. The debate, and rhetoric, is heating up and looks to continue as we head into the presidential election next year.

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Avoiding Brittle Fracture When Repressurizing Carbon Steel CO2 Vessels That Have Lost Pressure

A vessel containing liquid CO2 may form dry ice and be at a temperature below -100°F (-73.3°C) if a leak or control malfunction causes its pressure to drop to atmospheric pressure. If the upset condition is corrected and the vessel is repressurized too quickly with warm high-pressure CO2 , there is a possibility of brittle fracture if the vessel material of construction is carbon steel. The industrial gas industry has developed safe and acceptable methods of repressurizing carbon steel CO2 vessels that have lost pressure. These are described in the Compressed Gas Association guideline CGA-6.7.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

Once again, our industry is facing a major decision as to the preferred refrigerant that will provide appropriate performance and efficiency while considering the impact on the environment and public safety. This is a complicated question that must address the many diverse applications that are required for industrial and commercial refrigeration, many types of process cooling requirements ranging from manufacturing needs to pharmaceutical production and the general comfort cooling needs of public buildings to residential.

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Hydrocarbons — A Natural Next Step For IIAR

Many hydrocarbons such as Propane, Propylene, and Iso-Butane, make great refrigerants. They are natural, have zero ODP, GWP less than 4, and are categorized as non-toxic. Compared to the HFC’s and HFO’s (also known as “F-Gases”) they have:

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Future Focus

As refrigerants with highglobal-warming potential are phased out, natural refrigerants are being considered for new applications, and the industry is seeing increased use of secondary refrigeration units that allow users to lower their ammonia charge.

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Industry Research Leads to New Insight on Optimum Pipe Sizing

After extensive research and analysis, IIAR’s Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation has released new information on the economics of piping selection and on the proper selection of ammonia wet suction risers, which can help end users prevent oversizing of piping and using more energy than is necessary.

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Curbing Confined Space Confusion

As code interpretations continue to change and improvements slowly morph into normal practice, when the time comes to tackle OSHA’s confined space standard, where do you start?

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Education Committee Reports Scholarship Program Growth

Your Foundation’s scholarship program has been steadily growing since it was launched in 2016, helping address the industry’s growing need for specifically trained engineers.

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Selecting the Right Compressors

For a refrigeration system to run at optimal energy efficiency, it’s important to carefully select the right type of compressors need to be selected, and the correct cooling method employed.

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Shipping Bay: Safety & Reduced Energy Usage Overlap (a Win-Win)

While working as the utilities and facilities manager, to bring on a new major expansion at a large food manufacturing facility, “Safety Always” was part of the culture. The new expansion called for growing from a facility with eight lines of existing production to an immediate addition of sixteen production lines - and targeted to expand to thirty-two lines of production within two more years.

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IIAR Extends Safety, Education to Global Partners

IIAR continues to be active internationally, participating in and sponsoring conferences and natural refrigeration education in India, Mexico, Chile, Argentina and Colombia, with the goal to share IIAR’s message to important global stakeholders.

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The Catch 22 of R22 Replacements

If you’ve recently googled “it’s almost 2020 and I still have R22” then hopefully this article grants you some timely insights. The world of refrigerants has become much more complex since you could refer to your refrigerant as “Freon” and not make an embarrassing social blunder because you were actually using a halogenated hydrocarbon and not a fluorinated hydrocarbon mixed with an unsaturated fluorinated alkene.

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IIAR Webinar Series Addresses Safe Work Practices

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration has researched and gathered information from several members over the past year to develop a series of seven “Permit to Work: Safe Work Practices” webinars to help members of the industry stay safe and remain OSHA compliant.

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Health Savings Accounts: Are They Just What the Doctor Ordered?

Are health insurance premiums taking too big of a bite out of your budget? Do you wish you had better control over how you spend your health-care dollars? If so, you may be interested in an alternative to traditional health insurance called a health savings account (HSA).

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Knowing Without Looking?

Recently, I was working with the main refrigeration operaLESSON tor at a facility when he stated something that I felt was not a good idea. Since I would be working with this person and company for some time over the foreseeable future I didn’t respond to his statement, but started thinking if this is how many others feel.

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EPA Continues Compliance Focus on Ammonia Facilities

Compliance and safety in ammonia facilities continues to be a high priority for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 2016, EPA announced a series of National Enforcement Initiatives focused on improving safety in a variety of high hazard industries. Among these initiatives was an effort entitled “Reducing Accidental Releases at Industrial and Chemical Facilities”. EPA has placed specific emphasis on ammonia facilities as a part of the initiative, which has subsequently been renamed a National Compliance Initiative (NCI).

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Operating Cost Comparison between Transcritical CO2 and Ammonia Recirculation Systems in a Cold Storage Warehouse

Henningsen Cold Storage Co. (HCS) is a public refrigerated warehousing company based primarily in the Pacific Northwest. In business since 1923, HCS operates more than 60 million ft3 of multi-temperature-controlled storage at 13 facilities. The company embraces a continuous improvement culture and has applied it countless times in designing new facilities and optimizing existing facilities.

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Register Now, the IIAR Heavy Equipment Show is Just Around the Corner!

The end of the year is coming to a close quickly, and that means your IIAR staff at headquarters is busy preparing for the next annual conference, in March at the Rosen Shingle Creek Hotel and Resort in Orlando, Florida. I’m excited to announce many additions to this Heavy Equipment Show that are new in 2020 and highlight the many advantages of IIAR membership, so consider this your official invitation to another can’t-miss IIAR conference!

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Energy and Sustainability

I often think about the myster of human thought. How something unseen and metaphysical can affect and alter things that are seen and physical. The old saying is certainly true, that “Ideas have consequences”. As an engineer I was taught that entropy (disorder) unavoidably increases in the universe according to the second law of thermodynamics.

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IIAR Moves Forward on CO2 Standard

The use of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant has continued to increase, and the IIAR is moving closer to finalizing a new CO2 standard, which will address several critical aspects of CO2 refrigeration, such as installation, startup, inspection, testing and maintenance.

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Advancements in Refrigeration Equipment Require Advanced Lubricants

Any machinery with moving parts requires a lubricant, and the lubricant landscape within the refrigeration industry has gotten more complicated over the past 25 years as new types of equipment have entered the marketplace.

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Foundation Sees Fundraising Success

The Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation is in the midst of its annual fundraising drive, and this year is already looking promising, said Joe Mandato, chairman of the ARF board of trustees.

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Clean Evaporator Coils Reduce Energy Expenditure, Lower Costs

Numerous factors can contribute to decreases in a refrigeration system’s energy efficiency, not the least of which is its cleanliness. Much of the time, when facility operators see a facility’s efficiency drop, they believe that indicates they must replace the systems with larger units, when in fact, they often simply need to clean the systems they’re currently using - particularly the evaporators.

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ASME Low Temperature Requirements for Impact Testing

For those of us that didn’t major in metallurgy, steel was always a pretty simple material. It was pretty springy and flexible stuff. Just about any shape was possible. Steel could be loaded up to a point and it would bend, but when unloaded it would spring back to its original shape.

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From the Montreal Protocol to the Paris Agreement: How Refrigerants Have Felt the Chill of Global Environmental Regulations

International refrigerant related environmental regulation began in a laboratory at the University of California, Irvine, in 1973 when a postdoctoral fellow, Mario J. Molina, under the supervision of F. Sherwood Rowland, made a groundbreaking and controversial hypothesis that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy ozone (O3) in the Earth’s stratosphere.

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International Update: A Focus on Education in Latin America

In Chile, the International Committee of the IIAR has been working with the University of Santiago’s department of mechanical engineering along with the Chilean Chamber of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning (CChRyC) to develop a diploma track specifically to prepare refrigeration engineers to work with ammonia systems. The first class – 14 engineers in total – recently graduated.

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Understanding Bond Yields and the Yield Curve

When it comes to investing in bonds, one of the first factors to consider is yield. But what exactly is “yield?” The answer depends on how the term is being used. In the broadest sense, an investment’s yield is the return you get on the money you’ve invested. However, there are many different ways to calculate yield. Comparing yields can be a good way to evaluate bond investments, as long as you know what yields you’re comparing and why.

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Pre-emergency preparedness

Are you prepared? I think most of us think we are LESSON prepared, at least to deal with whatever we expect to happen. The trouble is that often what we come up against is not something we expected – therefore we are not prepared to deal with it. For ammonia refrigeration whether a system has 400 lbs. or 40,000 lbs. (or more) we should do pre-emergency planning and training.

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Regulatory Reforms Advance in Canada and U.S.

Regulations are a major consideration for the industrial refrigeration industry in the United States, Canada and many other countries. IIAR has long worked to improve the regulatory climate in the U.S. and is now working to broaden its influence across the globe. In some cases, this takes the form of promoting IIAR standards in countries that do not have well established regulatory schemes. In other cases, IIAR is working to advance regulatory reforms to reduce regulatory burdens while maintaining safety.

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Developing and Implementing Effective Ammonia Refrigeration System Operating Procedures

This paper provides guidance on developing and implementing operating procedures for ammonia refrigeration systems. The regulatory information is based on the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Process Safety Management (29CFR1910.119) standard (1992), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions’ (40 CFR part 68) Risk Management PlanRule(1996), and the IIAR standards for Developing Operating Procedures for Closed-Circuit Ammonia Refrigeration Systems (ANSI/IIAR7-2013).

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

It’s that time of year again, and I’m happy to welcome all IIAR members back to our most important event – the IIAR annual conference and exhibition. Before I get into the exciting things we’ve got in store for you as an organization this year, I’d like to take a minute to recognize all our sponsors and exhibitors. It is their support that provides the backbone for this annual event, sponsoring food and coffee breaks, not to mention our exhibit hall – and everything else that makes this one of the premier events in our industry.

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Chairman’s Message by Walter Teeter

It’s amazing how quickly a year can go by. Our 2018 annual conference is here already, and while that means this is the last annual meeting during my term as Chairman, this year’s conference represents just the beginning of many exciting developments for IIAR and its members.

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NH3 | CO2 TAKE GOLD

Ice rinks from community recreation facilities to the National Hockey League are moving to natural refrigerants such as ammonia and carbon dioxide as they replace aging facilities and deal with the mandatory phase out of R-22, a hydrochlorofluorocarbon that has been widely used at ice rinks across North America.

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Europe’s F-Gas Phase-Out, Price Increases, Leave the Industry Looking for Solutions

In Europe, the phase out of fluorinated gases with high global warming potential, known as F-gases in Europe and HFCs in the U.S., is resulting in severe shortages, causing prices to skyrocket and creating challenges for those that operate and maintain the systems.

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CONFERENCE CHAIR’S MESSAGE

It’s the beginning of a new annual conference for all of us at IIAR, and that means it’s time to meet new colleagues, network, and catch up with friends and business partners at our industry’s largest event. Welcome to the 2018 IIAR Natural Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition!

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ARF Message

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration, in partnership with other industry leaders — including The Foundation, RETA, IIAR, GCCA, Lanier Technical College, and Fastport — has created an apprentice program for mechanics and technicians to help bolster the refrigeration workforce. The program is designed to train ammonia refrigeration technicians in all phases of their careers and combines well-developed on-thejob learning with related instruction.

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From Threat Assessment to Employee Engagement: IIAR Tech Papers Unveil Research, Analyze Data

Utilizing bow-tie graphics to assess and prevent potential threats to an industrial ammonia refrigeration system, the importance of employee engagement and building relationships with first responders, and the benefits of ammonia scrubbing with C02 are among the technical papers and workshops that will be presented at this year’s annual IIAR Natural Refrigeration Conference and Expo.

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Efficiency Can be Just Another Controllable Cost

Energy efficiency can be achieved in ways other than with new technology. It can also prove to be a controllable cost, just as with labor and equipment. By developing an energy management system that establishes clear, measurable goals for energy performance, end users of industrial refrigeration facilities can realize a significant reduction in energy consumption, delivering cost savings that fall straight to the bottom line.

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Little Details Add Up

When big things happe they really draw our attention, but in most cases it’s the little things we miss that can result in unexpected and sometimes undesirable results. We might breeze along taking account of larger items, not realizing or taking time to think that little details can make a big difference.

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Social Security: Claim Early and Invest Versus Delaying Receipt for Increased Benefits

Financial Advisors are occasionally asked to provide an analysis of the potential results of claiming Social Security early and investing the proceeds versus delaying receipt for increased benefits, which can be claimed as late as age 70. The following are the reasons that delaying social security income can be a prudent strategy.

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Using the Right Type of Monitor for CO2

The use of CO2 is becoming common in the industrial refrigeration industry, especially with cascade refrigeration systems. But many people are not as familiar with CO2 as they are with ammonia, some believing that the only respiratory issue with CO2 is that it is an inert gas like nitrogen or argon.

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Appeals Court Denies Rehearing of Ruling Against EPA Regulation of HFCs

On January 26, 2017, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit denied petitions requesting a rehearing by the full court of a decision finding that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had exceeded its authority by regulating the use of HFCs through the Significant New Alternatives Policy program (SNAP).

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Energy Performance of Low Charge, Central Type, Dual Stage NH3 Refrigeration Systems in Practice

In the wake of the pending global phase-down of HFCs due to their contribution to global warming, users and owners of refrigeration systems are faced with decisions that at times appear difficult. These decisions relate to whether or not users continue to employ HFC-based refrigeration systems, switch to low GWP synthetic refrigerants or consider future-proof natural refrigerants such as NH3 , CO2 , hydrocarbons, water, or air in their new and/or expanded systems. In this decision-making process, one very important factor is often either overlooked or underestimated. This factor is energy performance—particularly the energy performance of low charge NH3 systems.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

This month you’ll be hearing from IIAR about one of our most important annual activities, our membership renewal drive. As an IIAR member, we all depend on you to take that essential first step to participate in the activism and advocacy of our industry, by

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Chairman’s Message by Mike Lynch

As your new Chairman, my first priority this year is to extend a warm welcome to all our new IIAR members. You are joining a community passionate about its work. Your participation and spirit of volunteer leadership is essential in creating the growth and change that will help our natural refrigeration industry meet the new challenges ahead.

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UNLOCKING AMMONIA

Ammonia refrigeration systems are becoming more compact, portable and simpler to install, widening the potential for adoption of ammonia, carbon dioxide and other natural refrigerants in previously untapped industries.

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With New Technology, Buying Decisions Hinge on Efficiency

The focus on efficiency and more important in every arena, and a growing number of companies are prioritizing the potential for long-term efficiency gains, reduced labor costs and streamlined maintenance - over initial cost - when designing their facilities.

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Industrial Refrigerant Apprenticeship Program Nears Completion

A consortium of agencies including RETA, IIAR, ARF, the Global Cold Chain Alliance, FASTPORT and Lanier Technical College has been working diligently to build the Industrial Refrigerant Apprenticeship Program and to get it up and running with the U.S. Department of Labor. It is with great pleasure that we announce that the process is nearly complete.

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ARF Message

In an effort to attract more young people to the industrial refrigeration industry using natural refrigerants, a high school in Azle, Texas, is taking a novel approach. By offering a fully dedicated ammonia refrigeration class, the school gives students unprecedented hands-on training, meaningful work experience and even industry credentials long before their peers are even considering what their careers might be.

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Documenting RAGAGEP

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Process Safety Management (PSM) standard (29 CFR 1910.119) was issued as a final rule in 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Risk Management Program (RM Program) regulation (40 CFR 68.79) was issued as a final rule in 1994.

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Standards Committee Focuses on CO2

One of the main focuses this year for the Standards Committee has been the development of a CO2 standard. As this refrigerant is growing in popularity, it’s becoming clear the industry needs guidance on its development, deployment and safety measures.

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International Committee Expands Outreach

Over the past year and a half, IIAR’s International Committee has established working chapters in several Latin American countries and has its sights set on more countries across the region and the world.

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Marketing Committee’s Report Quantifies Member Data

This year the IIAR Marketing Committee released its first State of the Industry report. The objective of the report was to compile various data sets and information about the industry and present it to IIAR members in an easily digestible way to share valuable information.

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How much is in the system?

One reason is compliance with federal safety and risk-management regulations. If the system is over the threshold quantity of 10,000 pounds, then it is subject to both the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) program and the EPA Risk Management Program (RMP). Additionally, some states may have more stringent program levels.

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Putting more Action in your Emergency Action Plan

In an emergency situation, every minute counts, and having a plan in place allows first responders and public safety officials to contain most threats before they grow into an unmanageable problem. During the Las Vegas Safety Day event, the Ammonia Safety and Training Institute, the Las Vegas Hazmat Team and others, including Michael Winburn, vice president of operations at Shetakis, which operates a cold storage facility in Las Vegas, came together to demonstrate how advanced planning can save critical time.

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IIAR Advances Regulatory Reform Proposals

President Trump has made regulatory reform a high priority for his administration. Trump has signed several executive orders on regulatory reform and task forces have been established at regulatory agencies to identify opportunities for regulatory relief.

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IIAR Remembers: Jim Wright

A longtime member of IIAR, two-term board member, friend and mentor to many in industrial refrigeration, Jim Wright was known for his tireless passion for a job well done, and his warm, generous spirit, which he shared freely with friends and colleagues.

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Best Practices in Managing an OSHA NEP or EPA GDC Inspection

In a recent OSHA Directive, CPL 03- 00-021, effective January 17, 2017, OSHA added EPA Level 1 and Level 2 processes to the Programmed Inspection and NEP selection criteria. This directive also provided some criteria on how facilities are targeted for an NEP inspection:

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

Business as usual is a term that has never applied well to industrial refrigeration. Our economic sector is constantly changing to meet the demands of a rapidly evolving supply chain, as we examine in this month’s cover story. Regulatory change, new technology and equipment development has propelled us into ever broader markets and applications for natural refrigerants.

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Chairman’s Message by Mike Lynch

In this issue of the Condenser, you’ll find several stories focused on new regulatory changes, code updates and the work of our many IIAR committees to keep the standards, education, and outreach efforts of our industry current and relevant.

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FRESH &Fast: HOW NEW CONSUMER EXPECTATIONS HAVE STOKED RECORD COLD STORAGE DEMAND

Occupancy rates at cold-storage facilities are at an all-time high, said Corey Rosenbusch, president of the Global Cold Chain Alliance. “There is denitely growing demand,” he said. “The industry feels like we’re in a good position right now with supply and demand, but there is pressure for more space.

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IIAR Standards Suite Gets Update

IIAR is working on changes to many of IIAR’s suite of standards. In a conversation with the Condenser, Standards Committee Chair Bob Czarnecki discussed each individual standard, providing detailed updates on the work being done. Here, the changes under consideration are outlined, organized by standard.

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Trade Groups, Lawmakers Speak Out in Support of the Kigali Amendment

Trade Groups, Lawmakers Speak Out in Support of the Kigali Amendment Several groups are focusing on advancing the Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol, which calls for a worldwide phase-down in the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons. The Kigali amendment, if ratified, establishes multiple legally binding schedules for participating countries to cap and phase-down the use of HFCs in favor of alternatives with lower global warming potential.

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Federal, State Programs Open Opportunity for Natural Refrigerants

Interest in natural refrigerants is continuing to increase, and several federal and state projects, led in particular by California legislation and agencies, are investing significant amounts of money into research and development programs designed to advance technology that could increase natural refrigerant use.

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IIAR Updates PSM/RMP

Project safety management and risk management plans are the subject of a recent IIAR publication update. IIAR has updated its PSM/ RMP manual, a compilation of all relevant Occupational Health and Safety Administration and Environmental Protection Agency requirements that would concern end users of ammonia refrigeration systems over 10,000 pounds.

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Latin American Countries Draft IIAR-Informed National Standards

The refrigeration industry in Latin America is critical to the regional and global economy, and thanks to an increasing awareness of environmental issues, government leaders are partnering with local chapters of IIAR to use their standards in drafting national regulations for the industry.

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Market-Driven Energy Efficiency

Building a facility and then retrotting it to be more energy efficient has been a practice used in the refrigeration industry for years; however, some forwardthinking companies are planning for efficient facilities from the start, and as costs come down, more organizations are willing to spend more upfront to see returns in the long-term.

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Estate Planning: Key Documents You Need

A durable power of attorney (DPOA) can help protect your property in the event you become physically unable or mentally incompetent to handle financial matters. If no one is ready to look after your financial affairs when you can’t, your property may be wasted, abused, or lost.

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Adding and Removing Oil

One of the important maintenance tasks in the operation of a refrigeration system is adding and removing oil. Oil is necessary in systems as a lubricant and, or, a sealant. Knowing how to identify and deal with the oil balance in a system is very important. Improper balance can have multiple effects on system operation.

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Appeals Court Vacates Trump Rule Delaying RMP Changes

A federal appeals court in August vacated a delay in Obama-era changes to the Environmental Protection Agency’s Risk Management Program (RMP) that would add compliance requirements to regulated facilities. Shortly after taking office, the Trump Administration issued a series of delays to the effective date of the RMP amendments, resulting in a final effective date of February 19, 2019.

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The 2018 and 2021 Codes Where We Are & Where We Are Headed

The 2018 editions of the International, Uniform and NFPA codes that affect the ammonia refrigeration industry, including the International Mechanical Code (IMC), International Fire Code (IFC), International Building Code (IBC), Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC) and NFPA Fire Code (NFPA 1) are now published and are pending adoption in many jurisdictions in the United States.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

This issue of the Condenser is all about operations. As you can see from our cover, one of the most important factors in that equation is geographical location. The regional and local operating environments define the business and regulatory landscape across the country. And that definition, in turn, determines how we uphold our high standards for safety and efficiency. The role that the regulatory framework plays in our industry, and even more importantly, how we respond to and inform it, is a central focus for IIAR.

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THE LOCATION LANDSCAPE

The cost of real estate, an available workforce and proximity to transportation dictate where businesses build industrial refrigeration facilities, and those factors are more important than ever in recent years. As rising demand spurs cold chain growth, clear winner (and loser) locations are emerging from the patchwork of regional U.S. regulatory and business environments. Increasingly, those environments are taking center stage in decisions to build a facility or what refrigerant to use.

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The 2018 and 2021 Codes: Where We Are & Where We Are Headed (Part 2)

Part 1 of this article presented IIAR’s many successes in changing the 2018 editions of model mechanical, building, fire and electrical codes in working with FM Global to update their recommendations for facilities with ammonia refrigeration.

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Understanding Compliance

I was talking recently to a professional acquaintance who told me that he is encountering more and more facility managers that ask him, “What is the minimum that we have to do to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119 and 40 CFR Part 68?”

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ARF News

The end of the year offers a time of reflection and an opportunity to give back to the programs, organizations and people that have supported us throughout the year. I am excited to tell you about all your foundation has accomplished in 2018 . . . and issue a challenge to you to get involved by giving to the programs which create opportunities to sustain the future of our industry.

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Year-End Tax Planning Strategies

If you are not engaging in year-end tax planning, you could be leaving money on the table. Consider the following strategies to identify potential opportunities to lower your 2018 (or 2019) tax bill. Be sure to consult with your a qualified tax professional before implementation.

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Awareness

Are you “aware” in all, or at least most of LESSON the aspects of your life? Awareness implies that you have knowledge of something by maintaining a level of alertness in observing or in interpreting what you see, hear, feel, etc.

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Supreme Court Declines to Hear HFC Case, EPA Proposes Removing HFC Leak Requirements

On October 9th, the Supreme Court of the United States declined to consider the case of whether the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the authority to regulate hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program.

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Energy and Function Analysis of Hot Gas Defrost in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

Traditionally one of two methods for controlling drainage of the evaporator during hot gas defrost is used: pressure control, which keeps the pressure in the evaporator constant during defrost, or liquid drain control, which uses a float valve to drain condensed liquid from the evaporator. Each method’s energy consumption is quite different, as the pressure-control method bypasses a certain amount of hot gas during the defrost period.

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Chairman’s Message by Walter Teeter

The Annual Conference and Heavy Equipment Show was a great success this year, and now that the flurry of committee meetings, networking events and technical discussions has ended and we’re all back at work, it’s time to set some new goals and carry the momentum of our recent meeting into the rest of the year.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

Now that we’ve all returned from San Antonio, it’s a new member year, and your staff is digging in to accomplish many of the new goals set out for 2017. First among them is planning the next successful conference. We’re looking forward to returning to the Broadmoor in Colorado Springs, and I hope to see you all there. Now is the time to take advantage of IIAR’s early membership renewal opportunities and get involved in the work of your committees.

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The Green Transformation

Refrigeration manufacturers said they would make production plans and future product development decisions according to the expected worldwide HFC refrigerant phase down put forth by the Kigali Amendment. The amendment, last year’s Montreal Protocol add-on, will specify phase-out deadlines for HFC’s, adding those refrigerants with high global warming potential to the group of ozone depleting hydrochlorofluorocarbons that are already being outlawed under the international agreement.

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Where Rules Regulate Refrigeration, Uncertainty Surrounds Trump Administration

A new presidential administration always brings changes, but the election of President Trump has also brought a new level of uncertainty for the natural refrigeration industry. “We’re in a very new world with the Trump administration,” said Lowell Randel, vice president, government and legal affairs for the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration. “We can get clues and signals but it is hard to know exactly what is going to happen at this early stage in the process.”

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Who’s Ready?

The majority of am monia refrigeration systems are well built, - lesson well maintained, and operated by people who know what they’re doing. IIAR has several Standards established to help in design, construction, maintenance and inspection of ammonia refrigeration systems and all of these factors usually result in no more than incidental releases from systems. Although rare, a system can have a potentially large release, or an actually significant event.

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ARF News

The son of John Adams, our more widely renowned second President, John Quincy Adams, and our nation’s sixth President, was an incredibly accomplished statesman and visionary. And he set a great example of devotion to a calling that many of IIAR’s past Chairs have followed. It’s an example of leadership that all can aspire to, and one that I hope to emulate as well.

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Stick to the Design and Keep Coils Clean for Maximum Efficiency

Understanding and sticking to the design characteristics of a cold room along with keeping evaporator coils clean, is the key to maintaining a system’s maximum efficiency level. Deviating from a system’s specified operating design, or failing to check the cleanliness and condition of coils, will waste energy and reduce the desired results.

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IIAR Guideline to Address Low-Charge Ammonia Systems

IIAR said it is developing an informative guideline document designed to help facilities with low-charge ammonia refrigeration systems simplify compliance with the OSHA and EPA General Duty Clause requirements from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Administration.

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EPA Publishes Final Rule on Risk Management Program

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed it multi-year effort to revise the Risk Management Program (RMP) regulation with the publication of a Final Rule on Friday, January 13, 2017. The rulemaking was initiated as a part of President Obama’s Executive Order on Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security, which came in response to the fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas in 2013. IIAR played an active role engaging with EPA on its proposed revisions to RMP and led an industry coalition expressing concerns with several of EPA’s proposals along the way.

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Compliance Doesn’t ETY Automatically Mean Safety

Your industrial ammonia refrigeration facility meets all the local, state and federal requirements regarding regulatory compliance, the Process Safety Management program or Risk Management program is up to date, the paperwork has been properly filed and you pass a government inspection.

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Eight Things to Know About Your 5-Year Mechanical Integrity Inspection

Mechanical integrity inspections should be conducted on the entire refrigeration system every five years in order to determine that an ammonia refrigeration facility’s equipment is safe and working to premium capacity

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Operating Procedures i n a r for Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

Tony Lundell, Director of Standards and Safety with the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration, hosted a webinar in January titled “Operating Procedures for Ammonia Refrigeration Systems” as part of IIAR’s program aimed at educating and advancing safety initiatives for its members.

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Causes of Surface Condensation on Insulated Piping

Pipe, tanks, ducts, vessels, and other mechanical equipment operating at below ambient temperatures are insulated for various reasons with a key one being to prevent condensation of water vapor from the ambient atmosphere on the exterior surface of the insulation system. Condensation can lead to numerous problems including:

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Chairman’s Message by Walter Teeter

We're kicking off a new year and setting new agendas, and even though I’m well into my term as your IIAR Chairman, I’d like to take this opportunity to welcome everyone – new and renewing members alike.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

It’s the beginning of the summer and that means it’s time for one of IIAR’s most important activities – leading membership renewals. And while this may seem like a routine activity we all work hard to complete every year, I’d like to take the opportunity in my column this month to point out that, as an IIAR member, this is one of the most important contributions you can make to the success of our industry.

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The Internet of REFRIGERATION

The Internet of Things — an increasingly massive network of electronically connected systems, devices and people that enables cross-platform data sharing — is creating a large, connected ecosystem across many industries, including refrigeration.

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Packaged Components Promise Flexibility, Lower Install Costs

Package systems are providing turn-key solutions for those within the refrigeration industry, and some manufacturers are turning to packaged components within those systems, which can cut down on the number of parts in use and make maintenance easier.

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Cleaner Coils Boost Cooling Capacity

When a large food distribution facility was faced with major issues resulting from evaporator and condenser coils coated with dust, dirt, and production debris, it turned to EcoClear in Georgia and its deepcleaning system. The facility was looking to improve air flow, increase dehumidification, improve energy savings and reduce maintenance cost through a deep cleaning of the coils.

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IIAR Members Honored with Awards from Accelerate America

Accelerate America magazine honored five IIAR member companies for their work in advancing natural refrigerant adoption in North America as part of its second annual awards program. The awards were presented in June during the ATMOsphere America conference in San Diego

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IIAR Remembers George Yoksas

George Yoksas was a long-time federal safety regulator, but he hated when red tape got in the way of solving issues. “He wanted to find> solutions. He would say, ‘How can we make this work and have a meaningful impact?’ ” said Doug Reindl, a professor in the University of Wisconsin departments of Engineering Professional Development and Mechanical Engineering, and a founding director of the Industrial Refrigeration Consortium. “He was willing to think differently than someone who might look at a standard or regulation and say ‘It says this.’ He thought about what made sense.”

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Sealless Pumps Reap Energy Savings

Seal-less magnetic pumps, or mag-drive pumps, have become the preferred option for a variety of conditions in the ammonia refrigeration industry, mainly because they take the heat generated by the pump's electric motor out of the cooling proce

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R-22: Five Things to Know

With production of HCFC refrigerants ending in less than three years, food and beverage manufacturers who currently rely on R-22 are faced with some difficult choices. Although facilities can continue to use recycled, reclaimed or stockpiled R-22 past Jan. 1, 2020, there will come a time when the shift to lower global-warming-potential synthetic refrigerants or natural refrigerants, such as ammonia, is unavoidable.

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ARF to Create Industry Insulation Standards and Quality Control Guidelines

While insulation is a critical element currently is no industry standard for installation or quality control of the installation, a gap that the Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation plans to address with a new research project.

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RETA, IIAR Develop CO2 Training Materials

As hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are being phased out, there is a growing emphasis on natural refrigerants. To help improve safety and educate those within the industry, IIAR and the Refrigerating Engineers and Technicians Association are working to create safety standards and develop educational materials

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Trump Administration Advances Regulatory Reform

President Trump made regulatory reform a priority during the campaign and pledged to provide industry relief from overly burdensome regulations.Since President Trump took office, he has initiated a number of actions to advance regulatory reform that will impact the industrial refrigeration industry.

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PARALLEL OPERATION OF SCREW COMPRESSOR PACKS

Ammonia screw compressor packs utilizing parallel operation of two or three smaller industrial NH3 screw compressors offer the optimum way to fulfill maximum part load efficiency, increased redundancy, and other highly desirable features in the industrial refrigeration industry.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

In this issue of the Condenser, we’re looking at the exit strategies that end users and manufacturers alike are using – to move away from hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. As former IIAR chairman Bob Port mentions in our cover story “There is a lot of internal pressure to get out of [HFC’s and HCFC’s] from a sustainability standpoint, but it has to come at a reasonable cost and be a good business decision.”

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Making the Investment

As they move away from refrigerants with high global warming potential, commercial and industrial refrigeration users said they’re investing in new, natural refrigerant technology, including packaged ammonia systems and CO2 transcritical systems. The move to newer technologies is allowing them to ease some regulatory burdens, increase efficiency and improve safety.

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Did Amazon Just Invest in Natural Refrigerants?

In August, Amazon completed its $13.7 billion purchase of Whole Foods Market Inc., and the e-commerce giant now owns the upscale grocer Whole Foods, which is based in Austin, Texas, and has more than 460 stores in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.

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Comparing Ammonia to 1234yf

Although ammonia has been the refrigerant of choice in industrial refrigeration systems for more than a century, it has faced competition from numerous synthetic refrigerants, most recently 1234yf and R32. Although the use of ammonia brings with it a greater regulatory burden, it remains the more logical choice of refrigerant in larger refrigeration systems, especially from a safety, efficiency and environmental standpoint.

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Back to Basics: To Reduce the Energy Burden, Reduce the Load

New technologies have led to improvements in energy efficiency, but it will take a new and smarter approach to industrial refrigeration system design to harness the full potential of energy savings – systems that are environmentally sound and costeffective.

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Situational Awareness Does Matter

I have often thought about situational awareness, but only on a cursory level. In my experience in dealing with emergencies, and seeing how people act in some situations most people seem oblivious to what is happening or can happen. Here is a recent experience I had that jarred me again into thinking about situational awareness.

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Attention: End Users and Contractors working in Illinois

In May of 2015, IIAR was notified that inspectors with the Illinois State Fire Marshal were requesting that ammonia vessels as part of refrigeration systems be internally inspected.

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Wealth Planning: Where to Begin on Education Funding

The IIAR and ARF reserve investment funds are currently managed by Stifel Financial Services under the investment policy established by their respective board of directors. In this and subsequent issues of the Condenser, you’ll find a “financial tech tips” article from the firm on this page. Members of IIAR may use the financial services of Stifel for personal and business investments and take advantage of the reduced rate structure offered with IIAR membership.

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To Stay Competitive, “Do the Math and Trust the Science”

Reduced-charge central ammonia refrigeration systems do not have to mean lower efficiency. With current technology, industrial refrigeration systems can be designed with a smaller ammonia charge and still operate at high efficiency. The key is trusting the math when designing a system.

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Closing the Flammability Gap

The safety of synthetic refrigerants versus anhydrous ammonia continues to provide a major point of debate within the refrigeration industry. Since ratification of the Montreal Protocol two decades ago, there has been a trend toward eliminating non-flammable synthetic refrigerants that have ozone depleting potential or global warming potential. At the same time, questions concerning the flammability and toxicity of replacement refrigerants have remained at the forefront.

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Court Rules Against EPA Regulating HFCs through SNAP Program

On August 8, 2017, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued a ruling in the case of Mexichem Fluor Inc. vs. the EPA finding that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) exceeded its statutory authority by promulgating a rule in 2015 that regulated the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The 2015 regulation was issued by EPA through its Significant New Alternatives Program (SNAP) as a part of the Obama Administration’s plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

This issue of the Condenser is all about education and training. As you can see from our cover, IIAR is unveiling a new apprenticeship program which will help our industry safeguard the generations of institutional knowledge we rely on for the development of our future technicians, engineers and managers.

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Chairman’s Message by Walter Teeter

We’re only three months away from the 2018 IIAR conference, and your staff at headquarters is working hard to wrap up annual conference programming for an event that promises to be one of the most exciting IIAR meetings yet.

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IIAR Launches Apprenticeship Program

Apprenticeship programs help businesses develop highlyskilled employees, reduce turnover, increase productivity and cut the cost of recruitment. They can also help employers attract new employees.

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Cold Chain Plays a Crucial Role in Emergency Preparedness

Disaster takes many forms – just this year, various sections of the U.S. have experienced catastrophic hurricanes, wildfires and flooding, all of which can knock out – sometimes for a long time – utilities that are essential to maintaining business. Earthquakes, tornados and blizzards are other major threats.

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The Future of Natural Refrigeration Begins Here

The future of industrial refrigeration begins at the 2018 Natural Refrigeration Conference & Expo. This annual event will take place March 18-21 at the Broadmoor Hotel in Colorado Springs, CO.

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Ammonia Holds Promise for Supermarkets

Ntural refrigerants have the potential to provide supermarkets with methods to address environmental and regulatory changes, take advantage of long-term efficiency savings and reduce energy costs. Educating grocers about the benefits of the technology could contribute to increased demand. There are new opportunities within the industry as stores look for alternative ways to power refrigeration.

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Observations on the Chemical Safety Board report on the Millard Accident

In August of 2010, an accident occurred at the Millard Refrigerated Serviced facility in Theodore, Alabama. Subsequent to the accident, the United States Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the accident and later issued a Safety Bulletin “Key Lessons for Preventing Hydraulic Shock in Industrial Refrigeration Systems”, published in January 2015.

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Whole Foods Tests Battery Storage to Reduce Energy Demands

On average, grocery stores use about three times more energy per square foot than average retail spaces, with much of the use going to refrigeration. To help cut energy costs, future-proof against volatile energy markets and increase resiliency, Whole Foods Market is testing a Refrigeration Battery at a store in Los Altos, California.

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You think you know what you’re doing?

I visit a lot of refrigerated facilities and I’ve found many of them well prepared for an ammonia incident. The refrigeration operators are trained and knowledgeable in the operation of their systems. Many companies also have others trained to assist in various duties if there is an emergency of any kind.

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Foundation Readies for IIAR Conference

In its continuing effort to support the military and introduce skilled workers to the ammonia refrigeration industry, the Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation and the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration are inviting transitioning military personnel, National Guard and reservists stationed at Fort Carson, Colorado to attend IIAR’s annual conference March 18-21 at the Broadmoor Hotel & Resort in nearby Colorado Springs.

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Ammonia and Bad Oil Don’t Mix

Oil and ammonia mix continuously in refrigeration compressors. The primary function of the oil is to lubricate and cool the compressor, but a small amount of oil is always circulating with the refrigerant that leaves the compressor. This oil comes in contact with all components of the refrigeration system, a fact that must be considered when replacing compressor oil.

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The Inheritance Talk

Losing a loved one can be one of the most challenging experiences of a person’s life. While grieving, a person must complete many burdensome tasks, such as planning a funeral. Receiving an inheritance during this time can be the source of even more stress, as the recipient must determine how to access and manage the inheritance.

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Proper Training Around Repair Procedures is Essential

A recent fatal accident, as well as reviews of previous problems, emphasized the critical importance of proper training, experience and clear-cut procedures when conducting repairs of ammonia refrigeration systems, leading industry observers said.

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CFATS Program Change Simplifies Top-Screen

Recent adjustments to the Department of Homeland Security’s Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) program have simplified the process of completing a risk-assessment, known as a Top-Screen, and could result in changes to how an ammonia refrigeration facility is categorized under the program’s tiering system.

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Tax Reform Takes Center Stage

Tax reform has emerged as the top priority in Washington, DC as President Trump and Congressional Republicans set the goal for passing legislation before the end of 2017. Republican leaders are feeling pressure to secure a signature legislative victory following the failure to repeal and replace Obamacare.

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Assessment of Lubricants for Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Systems

The purpose of a refrigeration oil is to lubricate the compressor and mechanical seals and to provide a seal to the compression chamber. The lubricant may also serve as a heat transfer fluid to remove part of the heat of compression in rotary screw compressors, or to help contribute to electric motor cooling inside hermetic and semi-hermetic compressors. Lubricants are an important design component for compressors.

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Chairman’s Message by Mark Stencel

When anyone asks me how I can best describe my experience in nearly forty years at sea, I merely say, uneventful. Of course there have been winter gales, and storms and fog and the like. But in all my experience, I have never been in any accident…or any sort worth speaking about. I have seen but one vessel in distress in all my years at sea. I never saw a wreck and never have been wrecked nor was I ever in any predicament that threatened to end in disaster of any sort.”

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

This issue of the Condenser is all about change. Whether it’s the regulations phasing out HFC’s and the new decisions faced by many in the commercial and industrial world, or the innovations and new technology that are enabling those decisions – one thing is certain, we are moving rapidly into a new era of refrigeration.

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GREEN Dialing

A growing number of supermarkets are moving to replace hydrofluorocarbons with climate-friendly alternatives, such as propane, ammonia and carbon dioxide, ahead of the planned phase out of R-22 in the United States, but grocers are moving forward cautiously.

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IIAR Heavy Equipment Show

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration’s 39th annual conference will provide four days of technical knowledge, networking and industry-sponsored events for those involved in the ammonia and natural refrigeration industry. The conference begins on Sunday, February 26, and concludes Wednesday, March 1, 2017.

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Awareness

Are you “aware” in all, or at least most of the aspects of your LESSON life? Awareness implies that you have knowledge of something by maintaining a level of alertness in observing or in interpreting what you see, hear, feel, etc.

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Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation Celebrates 10th Anniversary

The Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation marked its tenth anniversary on October 24, 2016. This past year gives us much to celebrate with several accomplishments that will keep the Foundation moving in a positive direction.

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Policy Changes Pave Way for HFC Reductions

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) has recently been at the center of policy deliberations in the United States and globally. Many HFCs used in refrigeration have high global warming potential (GWP) and have become the target for reductions by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the over 170 countries that are parties to the Montreal Protocol.

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Maintaining the Contractor, End User Relationship

Building and maintaining a strong relationship between the contractor and the end user of an ammonia refrigeration facility is one of the most valuable things both parties can do for project success. Communication, organization and a detailed understanding of what each side offers are essential ingredients for a smooth and beneficial partnership.

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Six Things ETY to Remember

Installation of an ammonia detection system is an essential element in preserving the safety of employees and products at any cold storage or processing facility, along with that of residents within close proximity.

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IIAR Unveils Educational Certificate Program

IIAR said it has officially launched its new educational certificate program that provides industry training as well as an unbiased means to validate what participants have learned. The program started with training on IIAR-2, the latest IIAR standard to be updated, and will expand to cover additional IIAR standards and other engineering courses.

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Kigali Agreement Sets International HFC Phase-Out Schedule

More than 170 nations meeting October in Kigali, Rwanda, adopted a landmark agreement to incorporate a mandatory phase-down schedule for hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants.

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Reducing the Regulatory Burden with Low Charge

With federal regulatory requirements becoming increasingly restrictive in recent years, end users in the ammonia refrigeration industry have been searching for more optimal refrigeration technology that reduces the regulatory burdens, enhances safety and improves overall energy efficiency.

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Chairman’s Message

Education is simply the soul of a society as it passes from one generation to another”

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

In this issue, we’re presenting news on one exciting new activity in our industry and our organization – to build and deliver IIAR’s first education program. IIAR is working harder than ever to deliver on its promise to membership: to broaden the reach of our member base by addressing major issues that are occurring in our industry to promote the ongoing growth and health of industrial refrigeration.

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INTRODUCING: ACADEMY OF NATURAL REFRIGERANTS

The IIAR Academy of Natural Refrigerants certificate program will allow design engineers, installers and responsible parties to show that they have received documented and standardized training. The program will begin with a training course on IIAR-2, the latest IIAR standard to be updated, and will expand to cover additional IIAR standards and other technical courses of study that are necessary for engineers working in the refrigeration industry.

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Designs, Upgrades Cut Costs for Ammonia Refrigeration Operators

It’s common knowledge that efficiently built facilities allow operators to increase their profits by reducing energy spending. But ammonia refrigeration companies, contractors and end users may be unaware of some less common knowledge . . .

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IIAR Remembers: George Briley

His nickname was “Mr. Refrigeration,” which speaks powerfully about his influence on the ammonia refrigeration industry. George Briley’s colleagues often said that he “developed the bible” for the industry. Within the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration, of which he was a co-founder, he was considered a true pioneer.

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IIAR Remembers: Joe Buck

Armed with a Master’s degree in plasma physics, Joe Buck understood industrial refrigeration like few other people. As an engineer and a college professor, Buck was an inspiration to his colleagues and to hundreds of students who went on to careers in the refrigeration industry

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Industry Groups to Launch OSHA Training on Ammonia Refrigeration

Beginning in early 2017 the Global Cold Chain Alliance, the IIAR and the Industrial Refrigeration Consortium will collaborate to present a training course for Occupational Safety and Health Act compliance officers focused on ammonia refrigeration systems.

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Learning the Most Important Lessons

Have you ever thought back to when you lesson were a kid, and wondered what you wanted to do and be when you grew up? How did that work out? Life certainly has a lot of twists and turns, and for many of us, landing in the industrial refrigeration field specializing in ammonia has been an interesting and sometimes amazing journey.

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The Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation Celebrates 10-Year Anniversary

The Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation, which celebrates its 10-year anniversary in October, is dedicated to funding research projects and creating educational opportunities, and those efforts will continue to expand under the guidance of executive director Lois Stirewalt O’Connor and the Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation Board of Directors.

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Reducing Ammonia Charge in a Field-Built System

As part of the push within the ammonia refrigeration industry to minimize ammonia system charges, some companies are turning to packaged systems to achieve lower charge, but it is also possible to reduce charge in field-built systems.

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Ventilating the Machine Room

Although proper design and installation of ventilation systems for machinery rooms to manage ammonia leaks is of critical importance to the industrial ammonia refrigeration industry, the design and safety standards set forth in the IIAR-2 standard remain a mystery to many designers and facility owners

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OSHA Convenes Small Business Panel on Potential Changes to PSM

In June 2016, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) convened a Small Business Advocacy Review (SBAR) Panel to get feedback from small businesses about potential changes to the Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation.

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IIAR Partners with ASTI on First 30 Minutes

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration is partnering once again with the Ammonia Safety Training Institute, ASTI, in its continuing effort to clearly define how to address the first 30 minutes of a response to an emergency involving ammonia, IIAR said.

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Daily Inspection i n a r Webinar: Employee Participation & Training

Engaging employees and providing them quality training is critical when it comes to minimizing risks and protecting both on-site and off-site personnel, property and the environment, which is why employee participation and training are required parts of the process safety management and risk management plan programs, said IIAR in the latest member webinar to be released by the Institute.

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Low Recirculation Rate Eva

Forced-air, tube, and fin evaporators have been used to refrigerate air for more than 75 years. In the 1960s, several papers documented the performance advantages of pumping ammonia through tubes with an excess amount of liquid, and pumped overfeed evaporators have been the popular choice for industrial ammonia refrigeration systems ever since.

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Chairman’s Message

Now that the IIAR conference has ended and we’re back at work, your IIAR Board of Directors, IIAR Staff and member volunteers are putting forth great effort to carry the momentum of our Orlando Conference forward into the rest of the year

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

There’s a lot going on at IIAR headquarters these days. We’re growing and expanding with new initiatives, programs and goals for the new membership year. That growth just reflects the expansion of our industry in general.

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From Regulation to Operation. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Owners and operators of ammonia refrigeration equipment have a number of regulatorydriven documentation requirements, and the level of understanding regarding those requirements can vary from company to company.

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New Programs, Initiatives Take the Foundation to the Next Level

The Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation, IIAR’s education and research foundation, is launching an effort to expand the outreach of the organization through a new legacy planned giving program. At the same time, leaders said the Foundation would build its visibility and impact this year by celebrating its 10-year anniversary with renewed attention to mission, scholarship, talent development and research.

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EPA Adds New Refrigerants to Phase-Out List

The Environmental Protection Agency has released its latest proposed rule that would make changes to the Significant New Alternatives Policy program, further restricting uses of what it terms higher global warming potential refrigerants, including HFCs.

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IIAR Standards Shaping RAGAGEP

Awareness of International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration’s IIAR-2 standard is increasing among regulatory agencies, and is beginning to shape recognized and generally accepted good engineering practices, industry and government sources said.

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IIAR Recognized for Standards Development

With the completion of IIAR-2 – the first comprehensive standard for the safe design of ammonia refrigeration systems – along with a companion suite of IIAR standards addressing installation, commissioning, operations and decommissioning, IIAR has evolved to become internationally recognized as a standards development organization, or SDO, said Jeffrey Shapiro, P.E., IIAR’s code consultant and president of International Code Consultants.

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Applying Natural Refrigerants to New Applications

Is it feasible to apply lowcharge ammonia technology in an application that has traditionally been dominated by the use of HFCs and other synthetic refrigerants? That’s what a big-end user wanted to know when it approached Azane Inc., a package supplier based in California, to manufacture a lowcharge ammonia chiller that provides chilled water to a HVAC air conditioning system.

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Designing for DX Technology: Four Steps

The movement toward low-charge systems is growing in popularity in the ammonia refrigeration industry for several reasons, and one effective way to significantly reduce ammonia charge is to design and operate evaporators using DX [direct expansion] technology.

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EPA Issues Proposed Rule on RMP

On March 14, 2016, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published in the Federal Register a proposed rule to modernize the Risk Management Program. The rulemaking comes as a part of the Obama Administration’s efforts to implement Executive Order 13650 – Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security. The Executive Order was issued in response to an incident at a fertilizer plant in West, Texas in April 2013.

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Evaluating Safety in CO2 Systems

The use of carbon-dioxide refrigeration systems has been gaining in popularity in recent years as an alternative to ammonia systems, as companies learn about their energy efficiency, safety benefits and resiliency. Although CO2 , like ammonia, is classified as a “natural refrigerant,” there are a number of differences between the two refrigerants, related to the significantly higher operating pressure of CO2 systems that are critical to understand from a safety perspective.

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Qualifying Ammonia Refrigeration Contractors

Business owners and operators must take steps to ensure that contractors working on or near ammonia refrigeration systems have the necessary qualifications and work experience to help employers understand their responsibilities related to ammonia refrigeration contractors, and demonstrate their proficiency in working with the system, Tony Lundell, IIAR director of standards and safety said. Lundell led an IIAR webinar in April entitled, “Qualifying Ammonia Refrigeration Contractors.”

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IIAR Submits Formal Questions on Eyewash, Safety Showers

The revision of IIAR-2 involved discussions of many philosophical and practical matters. Among the topics discussed was that of the need for eyewash/safety showers in areas other than machinery rooms, and specifically in cold environments such as a freezer or on the roof.

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Using Screw Compressors with Economizers to Improve Efficiency

Fitting screw compressors with economizers and side-loads provides a significant advantage over reciprocating compressors by improving energy efficiency and reducing the number of compressors needed.

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REDUCING AMMONIA REFRIGERANT CHARGE IN SKATING RINK REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

The information contained in the present document is provided by the authors only as indication, without implicit or explicit warranty. It is the user’s responsibility to validate the parameters applicable to the specific usage and make the necessary adjustments.

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Chairman’s Message

It’s time again for IIAR’s Conference and Exhibition, and that means my term as Chairman is almost over.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

The 2015 – 2016 membership year has been an exciting time for our industry. As regulations and technologies evolve at a rapid pace, we’re seeing new opportunities and applications for refrigeration grow like never before.

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ARF Chairman’s Message

During a recent high school fundraising dinner in my small town of Azle, Texas, I looked around in amazement at the nearly 200 people who came out to support this event.

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RESIZING REFRIGERANTS

As hedrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are being increasingly phased out to meet government and regulatory requirements, natural refrigerants are candidates to fill the void, getting a closer look from many types of businesses installing smaller refrigeration systems, such as supermarkets and convenience stores.

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Conference Section

The annual conference is an exciting time for all sectors of our industry to come together and catch up with friends and business partners at one of the largest conference and expo events dedicated to the use of natural refrigerants.

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IIAR Annual Conference to Provide Technical Knowledge, Industry Insight to Members

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration 2016 annual conference in Orlando, Florida, will provide three days of technical knowledge, networking and industry-sponsored events for those involved in the ammonia refrigeration industry

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IIAR Conference Technical Paper Presentations to Cover Releases, Small Package Systems

During the annual IIAR Conference technical program, a number of presenters will discuss their findings from peer reviewed technical papers. Topics range from global refrigerant trends to determining the effectiveness of vapor retarders on insulation systems.

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Work Continues on Existing Facilities Standard

IAR is moving forward on its recognized and generally accepted good engineering practice (RAGAGEP) standard for existing facilities, which is intended to provide guidance for end users and compare their older designs to the new and updated safety standards.

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New Association Spotlights Sustainable Refrigerants

The North American Sustainable Refrigeration Council — a newly formed 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization — is working to advance natural refrigerants such as ammonia or carbon dioxide and create a more sustainable future for supermarket refrigeration.

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Domestic, Global Policies Serve as a Catalyst for Growth of Natural Refrigerants

The regulatory burden on synthetic refrigerants is much stiffer than it ever has been before, which is opening more opportunities for natural refrigerants in the U.S. Lowell Randel, vice president, government and legal affairs for the Global Cold Chain Alliance, said a number of factors are contributing to the growth of natural refrigerants, including the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program, which is authorized under the Clean Air Act and administered by U.S.

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Remembering Bob Appleton

Bob Appleton never flaunted his expertise in the ammonia refrigeration industry, but those who worked with him during his five-decade career knew that he was the man to see whenever they had a riddle they could not solve.

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Remembering Bob Armstrong

In an industry that relies on complex data, Bob Armstrong packaged technical information with an inventive elegance and a critical eye as the driving force behind the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration’s annual conference for many years and the first editor of the Condenser magazine.

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Is a Vortex to Blame for Your Poorly Functioning Thermosyphon System?

Thermosyphon systems have a solid reputation in the industrial refrigeration industry, and are a popular choice for many . . . as long as they work. But when a thermosyphon system has problems, those problems are sometimes not easy to identify or correct. Gary Gneiting, director of engineering at Mericle Mechanical, Inc., said a vortex could be one reason at the bottom of a poorly performing system

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Managing the First 30 Minutes

The ammonia refrigeration industry has long understood that the most critical time during a potential ammonia emergency is the first 30 minutes. The quickness and effectiveness of first responders can mean the difference between a minor, manageable incident, and a chaotic catastrophe.

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Are You a Creature of Habit?

The lessons we learn come from many placLESSON es, some from experiences within our work environment and many outside of that environment. Consider this question, “Are you or a co-worker properly prepared to safely perform your assigned responsibilities?” “Have your past training and experiences formed a solid base that will help you complete your activity not only safely, but in an effective and efficient manner?”

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OSHA Initiates Small Business Review Panel on PSM Regulation

In February 2016, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) announced that it is initiating a Small Business Advocacy Review (SBAR) Panel in order to get feedback on several potential revisions to OSHA’s Process Safety Management Program (PSM) standard.

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Noncondensable Gases in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

Noncondensable gases in industrial refrigeration systems are common, and although it may take years for those gases to accumulate, they must be addressed. If not, the steady accumulation can become problematic and have an adverse effect on systems.

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Understanding Your Cooling Capacity

For owners of a cold storage warehouse or food processing facility, selecting the right air cooler can significantly affect energy consumption. Purchasing properly-sized, efficient evaporators to produce maximum capacity with minimal fan power can mean the difference between energy overages and energy savings.

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Chairman’s Message

We are officially three months away from the 2016 IIAR conference, and while most people are busy getting ready for the holidays, the IIAR team is also hard at work adding the final touches to our annual conference programming.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

As you’ve likely noticed, this issue of the Condenser is all about the re-release of IIAR-2, the first comprehensive code standard for the safe, reliable and efficient design of ammonia refrigeration systems. We’re dedicating so much space to IIAR-2 because it is perhaps one of the most important, long reaching projects our association has completed in recent years.

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IIAR-2 GOES TO WORK

With the completion of IIAR-2, the most comprehensive standard for the safe design of closed-circuit ammonia refrigeration systems, the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration has written a single authoritative source document that provides a path forward for the ammonia refrigeration industry.

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EPA, International Community Moves Forward with HFC/ HCFC Phase Out

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is continuing its phase-out of certain hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons in favor of safer, more climate-friendly alternatives, which is expected to create new opportunities for the natural refrigerants industry. So far, the EPA has focused on commercial applications, although a rule on industrial applications may emerge eventually

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OSHA Urges Employers to Verify Authenticity of Inspectors

The Occupational Health and Safety Administration recently warned employers of a situation in which an imposter posed as an OSHA inspector and requested unaccompanied access to a workplace. The agency asked company officials to utilize due diligence anytime they interact with someone claiming to be an OSHA official.

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IIAR-2 Committee Recognized for FourYear Publication Effort

Updating the IIAR-2 standard was a massive four-year effort, during which IIAR’s volunteer committee – working to achieve consensus – took a “divide and conquer” approach to handle the approximately 1,500 comments and more than 1,000 off-the-record suggestions, said standards committee vice chairman Don Faust.

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IIAR-2: Addressing the Machinery Room

The recent release of IIAR-2 provides an updated standard that clarifies previously cloudy codes and regulations and provides new information that enables facilities to meet the highest safety standards. Specifically where safe machinery room operation is concerned, the standard is critically important to the future of the ammonia refrigeration industry.

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Hands-On Facilities Improve Ammonia Refrigeration Training

The ideal training for ammonia systems should include classroom training coupled with a hands-on component in which operators and technicians can combine book learning with practical application, according to some industry training specialists.

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Re-Learning the Most Important Lessons

Most facility op erators believe that they and - LESSON their employees know what needs to be done in an ammonia release situation. But knowing what needs to be done is very different than knowing you will be able to do what needs to be done when the stress of an event makes reaction time and clear thinking crucial.

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Planning for Piping

Advances in technology have produced ammonia refrigeration piping systems capable of withstanding dramatic climate changes, leading many in the industry to locate as much of their facilities’ equipment as possible on the roof, which is a safer alternative in the event of an accident than the traditional location inside the building.

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EPA Proposes Rule to Strengthen Refrigerant Management Requirements

On November 9, 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking entitled “Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Update to the Refrigerant Management Requirements under Section 608 of the Clean Air Act.”

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A Preview of Upcoming Model Codes

Codes march on… Difficult as it may seem to believe, the 2018 editions of some model codes are already well on their way to completion. The 2018 International Mechanical Code is already completed, pending final ratification of recommended changes by members of the International Code Council.

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Pressure Vessel Replacement Considerations

When it’s time to replace a pressure vessel on a closedcircuit ammonia refrigeration system, considerations such as facility design, installation, operation, and maintenance can help operators determine what to purchase.

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Eliminating Vapor Drive

Energy represents the second greatest cost in industrial ammonia refrigeration, and a compromised vapor barrier is a significant contributor to energy losses.

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REFRIGERANT CHARGE REDUCTION: STRATEGIES AND RESULTS IN BUILDING ULTRA LOW CHARGED AMMONIA SYSTEMS

This paper presents an overview of the reasons for charge reduction in air conditioning and refrigeration systems and discusses strategies for charge reduction: in compressors (oil), vessels, pipes, and heat exchangers. The focus is on heat exchangers, microchannel in particular. In addition to a trivial reduction of internal volume as a strategy for charge reduction, the effect of mass flux on void fraction and needed manipulation of circuiting is presented. A framework and example of comparison between refrigerants based on their potential for low condenser charge is provided.

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Chairman’s Message

We’re nearing the second half of the year, and for IIAR staff, committee, and volunteer members, that means building on the substantial work completed so far in 2015 on a variety of different initiatives. You’ll read in this issue of the Condenser about two important research projects, a new scholarship initiative and work to reach our funding goal for the Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

In this issue, we’re presenting news on many exciting activities in our industry and our organization. IIAR is working harder than ever to deliver on its promise to membership: to promote the ongoing growth and health of industrial refrigeration.

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COOLING WITHOUT WATER?

Agriculture and food processing operations across the American West are scrambling to find new water sources amid a record drought. And although their water problems continue to be seen as a mostly regional issue for many in the industrial refrigeration industry, there’s no mistaking that water scarcity will loom larger in the years to come.

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Executive Order 13650 — Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

On August 1, 2013, President Obama signed Executive Order 13650 entitled: Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security. The action was driven in response to an explosion at a fertilizer facility in West, Texas

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ARF Launches New Research Project Selection Process

The Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation has launched a new process to select its research projects, which now starts with a simple, one-page form.

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Curb Your (People’s) Enthusiasm

Having enthusiasm LESSON for your work and a desire to accomplish something is good. I have worked with many people in the industrial refrigeration field that are enthusiastic, fun to be around, and even in challenging or stressful situations they have worked through issues in a positive manner.

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Lowering Charge with Advanced DX Ammonia

New technology that utilizes low charge direct expansion at low temperatures can improve safety and reduce the first cost of installation, while significantly reducing the ammonia charge required on site. That, in turn, can reduce the regulatory burdens associated with large ammonia inventories.

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Implementing Real-Time Profitable Safety

Profitability is always an important issue, and plant managers are frequently faced with addressing safety challenges while striving to achieve higher levels of production and efficiency. But instead of looking at safety and production separately, as many facilities often do, the two can be combined into one dynamic process called real-time profitable safety.

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IIAR Creates Compliance Guidelines Committee: Issues Call for Volunteer Members

IIAR Committees serve as a valuable forum for the open discussion of the critical issues facing the industry. IIAR’s Compliance Guidelines Committee, is one of the organization’s newest committees. Its purpose is to review, revise and publish IIAR guidance documents that currently do not have a formal home within any of the other committees.

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IIAR Remembers Fred Gary Walker

Fred Walker was known for his unfailing work ethic, integrity and commitment to the refrigeration industry, in which he was involved for more than 40 years. “A saying Fred used was, ‘The only thing better than coming in early is staying late,’ and he lived it.

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Two Years Later: Texas Explosion is Catalyst for Change

For the ammonia and chemical industry, the ammonium nitrate explosion in West, Texas, in 2013 has served as a catalyst for change, causing several government agencies to examine their policies and update safety regulations.

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COMPARING EVAPORATIVE AND AIR COOLED CONDENSING FOR AMMONIA SYSTEMS

Ammonia refrigeration systems use evaporative cooled condensers almost exclusively. Due to the large size of most ammonia systems, historical context, and industry perceptions regarding performance and efficiency, air cooled condensing is seldom considered for ammonia.

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IIR Holds Sixth Refrigeration Technologies Conference

The International Institute of Refrigeration, IIR, said its sixth Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies Conference clarified future uncertainties regarding both the Montreal and the Kyoto Protocols and environmental regulations applicable to natural refrigerants.

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Chairman’s Message

This month marks one of the most productive and interesting times of the year for IIAR. The March annual meeting is behind us, and we’re at the beginning of the organization’s new leadership cycle. That means it’s time to build on all the momentum we created in the last year, and at the same time look ahead to a few new goals.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

Throughout this edition of the Condenser, you’ll see a common theme: change. New technologies are opening the door to new types of customers and applications for ammonia and other natural refrigerants.

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Standardizing a Customized Industry

The move towards lower charge has spurred demand for products like standardized package systems that promise solutions to at least some of the industry’s biggest problems. But exactly how those products will develop, and who will take them to market is yet unclear.

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IIAR Shatters Attendance Records, Sets New Goals at Annual Conference

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration drew record attendance again this year at the 37th Annual IIAR Conference & Exhibition, an event that marked a variety of transitions and new initiatives for the association this year.

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Congress Tackles Regulatory Reform

The November 2014 elections resulted in a significant shift in control of Congress. Republicans gained control of the Senate and widened their majority in the House of Representatives. As a result, efforts to reform the regulatory process are seeing renewed interest this year.

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ARF News

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration is looking for a new executive director for the Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation to lead the non-profit research and education organization toward continued growth and expansion.

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2015 International Committee Meeting Highlights Industry

IIAR brought together more international members than ever before at the 2015 Industrial Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition in San Diego this year. And IIAR’s International Committee gathered members and delegates from around the globe to give a picture of the trends that are shaping the refrigeration industry worldwide.

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Routine Rooftop Maintenance Creates Requirement for Fixed Industrial Stairs

Increased regulatory scrutiny and the growing emphasis on process safety management have spurred a steady relocation of equipment from production room floors, freezers and coolers to facility rooftops. The reasons for the transition have been practical.

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Smaller Facilities Shouldn’t Overlook Safety Planning

When it comes to safety, prevention is the most important factor in avoiding potential consequences. Whether a facility is working with 900 pounds or 90,000 pounds of ammonia, the risks of an incident are similar.

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REFRIGERANT AND REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS: CHANGES IMPACTING THE OPPORTUNITIES FOR NATURAL REFRIGERANTS

As recently as five years ago, air-conditioning and refrigeration applications were dominated by a handful of refrigerants – ammonia in large industrial systems, HFCs like R404A and HFC-134a in stationary and mobile refrigeration and air-conditioning, and R410A in stationary air-conditioning applications. Meanwhile, the use of HCFC-22 was declining as it was being phased-out by the Montreal Protocol agreement.

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Chairman’s Message

Our IIAR Annual Conference and Exhibition in San Diego is finally here! The conference team has prepared a tremendous program for those of you attending this year, and while this is the last annual meeting during my term as Chairman, this year’s conference represents just the beginning of many exciting developments for IIAR and its members.

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President’s Message by Dave Rule

This issue of the Condenser marks the end of the last member year, and the beginning of a new one. It also marks our annual conference, where we come together from all corners of our industry to talk about the trends and technology shaping our business – at IIAR’s Annual Industrial Refrigeration Conference and Exhibition.

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The Case for CO2

The use of CO2 as a refrigerant has grown in recent years, thanks to market demand spurred by a combination of environmental regulatory actions and technology advances in microprocessor controls and valve design.

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EPA Issues Enforcement Alert on Anhydrous Ammonia

In February 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency issued an enforcement alert entitled: “Anhydrous Ammonia at Refrigeration Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA.” The EPA’s Office of Civil Enforcement issues alerts such as this periodically to highlight areas where the agency is placing enforcement priority.

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Welcome to San Diego and the 2015 IIAR Industrial Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition!

It’s time again for the industrial refrigeration industry’s largest conference and we think this will be one of the best and most informative programs we’ve ever produced. I’d like to take this opportunity to welcome all attendees to the 2015 IIAR Industrial Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition.

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Never Stop Learning

Over several decades I have met and worked with many outstanding refrigeration operators and engineers. These refrigeration operators have been able to truly operate their systems in an efficient, effective, and safe manner while keeping any ammonia releases down to incidental levels.

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The Codes and Standards Conundrum

In discussions on which codes and standards should be adhered to, I am all too often reminded of Daniel Patrick Moynihan who is the former U.S. Senator attributed with saying “Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.”

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